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The Effects of Organic Nutrients of Cake Fertilizers on Soil Biochemistry Properties and Flue-cured Tobacco Qualities

Author: WuXuePing
Tutor: GuoPingYi;LiuGuoShun
School: Shanxi Agricultural University
Course: Crop Cultivation and Farming System
Keywords: Cake fertilizers Organic nutrient Soil biochemistry property Flue-cured tobacco qualities
CLC: S141
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2003
Downloads: 398
Quote: 16
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Executive Summary

The mechanism of the cake fertilizer affecting soil biochemistry properties and flue-cured tobacco quality was studied by the fermentation experiments, field experiments, pot experiments, water culture experiments and pipe experiments. The results will develop the scientific and technical theories for the tobacco nutrient, the rational fertilizer application, and the flue-cures tobacco quality improvement.1. The higher fatty acids, organic acids, amino acids and ferulic acids from the four fermented oil cakes were found. The organic substances and their dynamic regularity from the four oil cakes were analyzed during the fermentation.(1) The main compositions of organic substances from sesame seed cake, soybean cake, peanut seed cake and rapeseed cake were similar, but their contents changed significantly during the fermentation. The contents of linoleic and oleic acid were the highest and the following was palmitic, stearic and linolenic acid in the higher fatty acids of the four oil cakes, i.e. C16 and C18 acids were the dominant components in the higher fatty acids from the cake fermentation and the content of saturated acids was higher than the content of the unsaturated acids obviously. In the organic acids, the contents of lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid ,tartaric acid and acetic acid were higher than oxalic acid. The glutamate occupies the first place, aspartate ,leucine and arginine comes the second in all amino acids. Soybean and peanut cakes produced more amino acids than the others during the fermentation.(2) The dynamic regularity of organic substance contents of the four oil cakes was analyzed during the fermentation. The contents of almost the higher fatty acids and the organic acids inclined to increase in the initial fermentation stage, and reached the peaks in the different fermentation stages. However, the contents of total amino acids were significantly decreased after seventy days of fermentation.(3) The content changes of ferulic acid were determined during the oil cake fermentation. The range of the rapeseed cake ferulic acid content was from 48.6 to 49.2 μg/kg. When the soybean and peanut cakes were fermented for seventy days, the ferulic acid were 30.2 μg/kg and 85.7μg/kg respectively. While the least content(2.55.4μg/kg) was from sesame seed cake.(4) The compost characteristics and the compost periods of the four oil cakes were described. At 28 , the suitable fermentation time of sesame seed cake was 30?0d, the soybean 5060d, the peanut 5060d, and the rapeseed cake 6070d. These results suggested that the fermentation time should be controlled in farming based on the characteristics of fermentation and compost.2. The effects of cake fertilizers in soil were understood better by the following studies.(1) The cake fertilizers improved the enzyme activity in soil. When mixture fertilizer(cake fertilizer mixed with chemical fertilizer) was used in soil, the enzyme activities of lipase, urease and invertase from soil increased 24.85%60.00%, 23.08%39.46% and 4.17% 56.21% respectively. The results indicated that the cake fertilizer promoted the transferring process of soil organic matter, and improved the biochemical properties to meet nutrition supply during tobacco growth.(2) The application of cake fertilizers can raise the C and N contents of the microbial in soil, improve the soil regulating function on C and N. The mixture fertilizer increased C and N of the soil microbial, the increase rates were 79.88%97.14% and 29.73%?4.96% respectively compared with only using chemical fertilizer. The microbial C content reached the peak at the budding stage of flue-cured tobacco. However, the peak of microbial N content appeared at the rosette stage. These showed the content of inorganic N was higher at the initial stage of plant growth, and some of soil inorganic N was fixed by microorganism. Microorganisms may release itself N to meet the need of flue-cured tobacco during the later growing stages. So the microbial N

Full-text Catalog

The Chinese summary     7-10
Preface     10-13
1 Background and issues raised     10-11
2 main contents   nbsp  ; 11-12
overall research ideas   12-13
Chapter Literature Review     13-28
organic fertilizers, organic nutrients Research progress     13-21
1.1 organic fertilizer organic ingredients     13-15
1.2 the organic nutrition connotation and denotation     15-16
1.3 Application of organic manure on soil amino acid and organic acid content   the   16-18
1.4 amino acids and organic acids on the role of crop nutrition   the   18-20
1.5 organic phosphorus and other organic nutrition     20-21
cake seed sesame fertilizer on soil     21-23
2.1 Effect of cake fertilizer on the activation and nutrient content of the soil inorganic nutrients     21-22
2.2 application cake fertilizer on soil microbial     22-23
2.3 cake seed sesame fertilizer on soil activity     23
the 3 application BingFei on Tobacco growth and development and the impact of the quality of tobacco leaves     23-26
4 tobacco amino acids, organic acids and higher fatty acid content of tobacco quality relationship     26-28
second cake fertilizer organic nutrients in the fermentation process changes     28-38
Materials and methods     28-29
results and analysis     senior cake fertilizer fatty acid content of 29-35
2.1 and changes     29-32
2.2 the cake fertilizer organic acids content and change     32-33
2.3 BingFei amino acid content and change     33-34
2.4 BingFei, ferulic acid content and change     34
bioassays of 2.5 different types of of cake fertilizer maturity level of their maturity characteristics     34-35
Summary     35-36
4 discussion   the   36-38
Chapter BingFei tobacco soil mineralization rates and the humification coefficient analysis     38-44
1 Materials and methods     38-39
2 Results and analysis     39-41
2.1 cake fertilizer in organic C mineralization rate analysis     39-40
2.2 BingFei, organic N mineralization rate analysis of     40-41
2.3 oil cake humification coefficient analysis     41
Summary     41-42 < br /> 4 discussion   the   42-44
Chapter cake seed sesame fertilizer on soil biochemical properties   the   44-54
Materials and methods     44-45 < br /> 2 results and analysis     45-51
2.1 different fertilizer treatments on the activity of soil     45-47
2.1.1 different fertilization treatments on the activity of soil fat impact     45-46
2.1.2 different fertilization treatments on soil hydrogen peroxide activity     nbsp 46
2.1.3 different fertilization treatments on soil urease activity ;   46
2.1.4 different fertilization treatments on soil invertase activity     46-47
2.2 different fertilizer treatments of soil microbial C, N     47 - 49
2.2.1 different fertilization treatments on microbial C     47-48
2.2.2 different fertilizer treatments on microbial N     48-49
2.3 different fertilizer treatments on total C content of soil humic acid     the 2.4 different fertilization treatments on soil amino acid content of 49
Summary     51
4 discussion     51-54
Chapter Five different types of cake fertilizer on the chemical composition of tobacco and the aroma quality     54-71
Materials and Methods     54-56
2 Results and analysis     56-68
2.1 Different Types of Cake on tobacco leaf pigment content     56-58
2.2 different types of cake fertilizer on tobacco reducing sugar, nicotine and protein content     58
2.3 Different Types of Cake processing tobacco smoking results of analysis     58-59
2.4 Different Types of Cake organic tobacco acid content   the   59-60
2.5 different types of cake fertilizer on tobacco petroleum ether extract content     60-61
2.6 Different Types of Cake higher fatty acid content of tobacco   the   61-63
2.7 different types of cake fertilizer on the amino acid content of tobacco   the   63-66
2.8 different types of cake fertilizer on tobacco essential oils aroma composition     66 -68
3 Summary     the discussion 68-69
Chapter cake fertilizer with different proportions of fertilizers fertilizer chemical composition of tobacco and the aroma quality impact     71-91
Materials and methods     71-72
2 Results and analysis     72-88
2.1 Cake Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on the impact of the organic acid content of tobacco     72-75
2.1.1 same deal with the different parts of the organic acid content of tobacco leaves change analysis     organic acid content between 72
2.1.2 same position Changes     72-75
2.2 cake fertilizer and fertilizer fertilizer on the amino acid content of tobacco     75-79
2.2.1 Cake Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on the amino acid content of tobacco     75-77
2.2.2 cake fertilizer with chemical fertilizer tobacco free amino acids     77-79
2.3 cake fertilizer with chemical fertilizer on tobacco petroleum ether extract content impact     79
2.4 BingFei with Chemical facilities relative content of higher fatty acids of the tobacco     79-81
2.5 BingFei with the tobacco aroma composition Chemical Fertilizer     81-86
2.6 of cake fertilizer with chemical fertilizer combined application of tobacco reducing sugar, nicotine and protein content     86-87
2.7 cake fertilizer with chemical fertilizer tobacco smoking results Analysis     87-88
Summary     the discussion 88-89
the Chapter VII organic nutrients on Growth and tobacco quality impact     the 91-102
first section outside source of amino acids is the amino acid content of tobacco     91-97
Materials and methods     91-92 < br /> 2 results and analysis     92-96
2.1 exogenous amino acids on the amino acid content of tobacco     exogenous amino acids 92-93
2.2 per plant flue-cured tobacco leaves amino acids accumulated The impact of the amount     93-94
2.3 Exogenous amino acids on the physiological characteristics of flue-cured tobacco     94-96
2.3.1 exogenous amino acids on the leaf pigment content     94
2.3.2 exogenous amino acids leaves activity     94-95
2.3.3 exogenous amino acids of the root activity     95
2.3 .4 exogenous amino acids of the tobacco plant dry matter accumulation     95-96
Summary     96
4 discussion     96-97
second the section applying organic acids on the chemical composition of flue-cured tobacco physiology and the leaf     97-102
1 Materials and methods of     97-98
results and analysis     98 - 100
2.1 application organic acids of flue-cured tobacco leaf physiological characteristics are found;   98-99
2.2 Effect of Organic Acids on Tobacco root characteristics     99
2.3 Effect of Organic Acids tobacco chemical ingredients     99-100
Summary     100-101
discussion     101-102
Reference     102-115
English summary     115-120
author during the PhD thesis and achievements About     120

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