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Change and Innovation of Public Goods Provision System in Rural China

Author: HuangLiHua
Tutor: XuChuanZuo
School: Jilin University
Course: Political Economics
Keywords: Quasi-public goods Supply of public goods Theory of Institutional Change Supply System Farmers' burden People's commune China's rural areas Supply the main Tax and Fee Reform University Press
CLC: F320
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 1316
Quote: 13
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The research on the Institution of public goods’supply of China’s rural areas is a very important practical issue. As a judgment, on the one hand, because of China’s rural areas has long been on the serious deficiencies of public goods, and has become a constraining further development of the national economy as a whole bottleneck, on the other hand, it is also currently subject to the three rural community of common concern, such as hot issues close to people’s livelihood Related.This article takes the Marxist theory as macro guidance and is on the basis of researches in the past of many scholars at home and abroad, to study China’s rural public goods Changes in the evolution of the supply system trajectory with theory of Institutional Changes, theory of public goods; public choice theory and theory of incentives, and other related analysis tools. This article holds that the changes about social system, rural micro-economic organizations and financial system (including rural tax and fee system) are the importance of institutional factors which directly induced the supply of public goods regime change in China’s rural areas. Government and various other actors pursue for the potential interests such as the promotion of national economic growth, improve the welfare of society as a whole, the Government established the authority, the realization of its own economic interests, which is the internal driving force to promote institutional change. The ideology of the state of the various periods makes an important influence on the changes of institutional change. The model of institutional changes, mostly induced changes in the former regime, followed by a mandatory system changes, the two often occur together, but in different periods of different intensity.This article is basically in accordance with "the main features of the system, system performance, as well as the disadvantages" In various periods of internal. The logic of thinking analysis. Through various periods of a large number of actual data and the actual situation of the analysis, we found that China’s rural state of the supply of public goods is long-term position in the Predicament, and was closely related with government’s deficient on the supply institution of public goods in China’s rural areas. The absence of performance in many aspects, the most prominent is the lack of long-term financial support. This lack comparing to national investment in the city, comparing to other countries with similar foreign products of public investment, comparing with the national Red provisions of the first official document, and comparing to the corresponding standard exists a wide gap between. Even since 2000 started the rural tax and fee system reform, the state’s investment in public goods in rural areas is still lower than the same period in the city’s investment, lower than the general level of foreign, lower than the national standard. Some proportion is even more low, and some of the gap between Chinese cities is increasing.Why is there such a situation? There are many reasons: First, there are many problems on the tax system, transfer payment system, investment system, and so on. such as the lower tax sources of rural grass-roots Government, too little investment channels chaos, transfer payment system is imperfect, the higher level of government transfer payments of funds allocated by layers of closure, and so on, so that the financial powers of rural grass-roots and the acting power serious asymmetry to give up part of the supply of public goods. Second, local governments at all levels and all sectors of the thinking of officials may not have the depth of real change Heavy light agriculture, the rural-city light of traditional fixed pattern of thinking, and not really a co-coordinating urban and rural, urban and rural balanced development of the new concepts of social justice And not the "three rural" issue on the real work of the most important position. Third, the institutional arrangements in the implementation mechanism not perfect enough. Many of the central government makes good intentions, many beneficial to the three agricultural policies, and no government officials at all levels are well implemented there. Said, do less; formalism over the way too small. Fourth, do not rule out some government officials have a serious self-motivation, the power in their hands as their own or as a small group of profit-making tools. Fifth, the mechanism for selecting cadres, for officials at all levels of incentive mechanism and supervision mechanism, performance appraisal mechanisms are not sound, making them the lack of a better supply of public goods in rural areas of external incentives and constraints. In short, the biggest crux of China’s rural areas in the supply of public goods is the government and government officials. If the key points are resolved, China’s rural public goods, the supply issue will be a very good improvement. Japan, South Korea, Sweden, the United States and other countries in the supply of public goods in rural areas of the practice and experience for this vision to provide a strong corroboration. We visit these countries in the relevant information in the course see that their government without exception, are the natural in a weak position in the agricultural and rural financial investment, and various systems, policies and regulations for all aspects of the supply tilt.Of course, the Government stressed that the supply of public goods in rural areas of responsibility is only an important aspect in solution to the problem. Given China’s large population of the special national conditions, taking into account the long-term accumulation of public goods to the severe shortage of rural realities, the only hope of unilateral efforts to quickly improve rural public goods supply problems, is far from enough. It should also be on a voluntary principle, mobilize the whole society, including farmers own forces in the rural areas to provide funds or technical assistance and services, establish a government at all levels, the market, civil society organizations and other parties to cooperate in the multi-supply system. This line of thought has a sufficient basis from the theoretical point of view of public goods. The practice of speaking from abroad, there are many successful cases. China is, in fact there has been spontaneous and the main supply such a wide range of pattern. But compared with other countries, China’s such a diversified pattern is far from immature, on the one hand the Government does not do that responsibility, on the other hand, all kinds of civil supply is still in the embryonic stage, far from playing its due role.Therefore, the future government in its efforts to change at the same time, the incentive mechanism should also be in the public selection mechanism, and so on various aspects to create conditions in order to induce and stimulate, encourage and promote the main supply of the large number of people have to attract private capital investment and human input And even civil wisdom of the investment, so as to the supply of supplementary.In short, the building and optimizing on the supply system of public goods in rural areas is a very complex and systematic project. It is not just the supply system itself, but also related to national fiscal and taxation system, investment management system, cadres appointment and removal system, governmental agencies, the rural grass-roots organizations, such as micro-economic organization in all aspects of the reform, and government officials, farmers and other community Class ideas and concepts, such as updates, take many measures of implementation. On the economic level, we should be thoroughly change the traditional, with a discriminatory system of the urban-rural dual structure, made great efforts to co-ordinate the urban and rural construction in accordance with the reunification, the principle of equality, covering the establishment of urban and rural areas, benefiting the people’s public finances and by the public Financial support by the system of supply of public goods, to establish a fair, reasonable, power and financial powers in line with the new rural financial revenue and expenditure system. At the political level, truly promote rural democracy, to break the power monopoly of vested interest groups to ensure the smooth reform of government. In order to achieve these goals, including farmers, and ensure the equality of all citizens could enjoy public services, thereby enhancing the level of benefits the entire society, and promote urban and rural social and economic balance of the coordination of development, the establishment of a harmonious society, the Government in The whole process should give full play to its leading role in strengthening its dominant position. Only through the efforts of all aspects of the end in order to form a main participate in a pluralistic, a variety of complementary resources, in diverse ways, capital efficient operation of the system for the supply of public goods in rural areas.

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