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Effects of Water Saving Materials on Keeping Crop Seedling Against Drought and Soil Improvement

Author: TianLu
Tutor: LiLiJun;LiuJingHui
School: Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
Course: Crop Cultivation and Farming System
Keywords: Water saving materials Keeping seedling against drought Soil characteristics Yield
CLC: S482.99
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 12
Quote: 0
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Abstract


There is little rainfall along the great wall in Inner Mongolia and the drought in spring is serious which cause the difficulties of emergence and seedling protection, and also the long-term tillage causes the degradation of soil quality. Aiming at above problems, this paper studied the effects of four water saving materials (Potassium Polyacrylate, Polyacrylamide, Rough Machining Humic Acid and Bentonite) on keeping crop seedling against drought and soil improvement. The effects of water saving materials on keeping crop seedling against drought are illustrated through the dynamic monitoring of soil contiditon and seedling growth in seedling stage. The effects of water saving materials on soil quality are studed applying the time-space variation analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The two-year trials are conducted to examine the long residual action of water saving materials. The results showed as follows:(1) Water saving materials have the effects of keeping crop seedling against drought. The four water saving materials improved the soil drought resistance in seedling stage, the water storage content increased by0.61mm-7.81mm. Four water saving materials can promote the emergence of crop and increase the emergence rate, in2011the emergence rate was increased by0.29-7.72, the effects of potassium polyacrylate and polyacrylamide were better than bentonite, the bentonite was better than rough machining humic acid. In2012, the emergence rate was increased by1.12-8.76, the effects of using two years were better than only using one years, the bentonite was used only in the first years, but it had the better effects than the humic acid using two years and other three materials using one years. The effects on seedling growth were showed the same with the emergence rate, and the seedling plant height increased by8.26%-18.41%, the seedling fresh weight increased by13.67%-38.84%. the seedling dry weight increased by9.09%-37.06%.(2) Water saving materials improved soil characters. Four materials all can improve soil physical characte isties in two years, especially in10-20cm soil layer. And the soil water content increased0.62mm-16.62mm, soil aggregate content increased by8.58%-24.82%, soil bulk desity decreased0.03g·cm-3-0.13g·cm-3, soil porosity increased by3.42%-10.25%. Four materials all can improve soil chemical materials in two years, especially in10-20cm soil layer. The soil organic matter content increased by 6.64%-11.01%, soil avalible nitrogen content increased by6.09%-11.14%, soil avalible phosphorus content increased by8.44%-11.34%, soil available potassium content increased by7.22%-13.28%. Four materiasl all can improve soil biological characteristics, especially in10-20cm soil layer. The soil microbial biomass C content increased by6.06%-29.13%, N content increased by6.82%-30.54%, P content increased by9.00%-32.25%, the soil catalase activity increased by8.28%-31.70%, invertase activity increased by6.13%-24.51%, urease activity increased by-6.76%-33.40%and alkaline phosphatase activity increased by6.84%-25.89%.(3) Water saving materials can improve crop yield and economic benefit. Crop yield increased applying four materials in two years. The yield increased by5.37%-25.15%, the water use efficiency increased by5.69%-37.32%. And under the using of water saving materials, the emergence rate and each soil characteristics all had significant or very significant correlation with crop yield, they had very important effects on the yield formation. Four materials can increased crop outputs and economic benefits, the crop outputs increased by5.19%-24.04%, the economic benefits increased193.92RMB·hm-2-2633.78RMB·hm-2.(4)Through making the seedling stage and soil character indexes being dimensionless and the calculation of weights, the composite evaluation index of keeping seedling against drought and soil improvement were determined. In the first year, the composite evaluation index showed potassium polyacrylate> polyacrylamide> bentonite> rough machining humic acid, in the second year it showed potassium polyacrylate and polyacrylamide using two years> rough machining humic acid using two years and bentonite using one year>other three materials using one year. So the effects of water saving materials showed that using two years were better than only using one year, effects of potassium polyacrylate and polyacrylamide were better than rough machining humic acid, and the was used only in the first years, but it had the better effects than the other three materials using one years, it had the best long residual action.

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