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Effect of Potassium Application on Dry Matter Accumulation, Nutrient Uptake and Utilization of Wheat/Maize Rotation System in Different Potassium Levels of Soil

Author: ZhangHui
Tutor: YeYouLiang
School: Henan Agricultural University
Course: Plant Nutrition
Keywords: wheat maize yield dry matter potassium rate nutrient uptake
CLC: S512.1
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 65
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Abstract


Field experiments were carried out with different potassium applicationand potassium application technology to study yield, dry matter and nutrientaccumulation distribution, transport of wheat and maize rotation system atYanshi(high potassium site), Wenxian(medium potassium site), Xinzheng(lowpotassium site) city on three different potassium levels soil in Henan province. At thesame time, explore regularity of nutrient uptake, the soil potassium balance at high,medium and low potassium sites, to seek the appropriate potassium fertilizerapplication and potassium application technology, to provide a scientific basis forhigh-yield and high-efficient wheat and maize and reasonable potassium fertilizerapplication of Henan province. The main results were as follows:1. Three sites2010~2011after sowing of wheat65d~136d, dry matteraccumulation basic did not change, after sowing136d~238d, increased to “line” type;2011~2012wheat dry matter accumulation showed “S” type curve, after sowing68d~136d, the dry matter increased slightly, after sowing136d~197d, the dry matteraccumulation increased obviously accelerate, after sowing197d~236d, the dry matteraccumulation slow again.2010~2011dry matter of mature period high, medium, lowpotassium sites respectively by K45+D, K135+D, K135+Dtreatment were highest, were19117kg/ha,15478kg/ha,16469kg/ha, compared with not application potassiumtreatment, increased respectively by17.03%,15.50%,23.37%;2011~2012dry matterof mature period high, medium, low potassium sites respectively by K45+D, K90+D,K135+Dtreatment were highest, were20467kg/ha,17651kg/ha,16905kg/ha,compared with not application potassium treatment, increase respectively by14.82%,15.73%,23.42%. Three sites maize dry matter accumulation during the growth period,increased to “line” type. Dry matter of mature period high, medium, low potassiumsites respectively by K90+D, K90+D, K135+Dtreatment were highest, were18008kg/ha,16221kg/ha,12668kg/ha, compared with not application potassium treatment,increased respectively by12.97%,14.72%,20.23%. Wheat dry matter accumulationis much higher than maize.2. Various organs distribution of wheat dry matter accumulation at flowering period high potassium site to stem>spike>leaf>sheath, medium potassium site tostem>leaf>spike>sheath, low potassium site to stem>spike>sheath>leaf, at matureperiod three sites were all to grain>hull+rachis>stem>sheath>leaf. At maize silkingperiod three sites were all to stem>leaf>spike>sheath, at mature period three siteswere all to grain>stem>leaf>hull+bract>sheath. Three sites various organs of wheatdry matter transfer volume were stem>leaf>sheath, stem transfer amount with highpotassium site>medium potassium site>low potassium site, leaf and sheath transferamount with medium potassium site>high potassium site>low potassium site, fromthe total transfer amount to see, with the medium potassium site in the highest, lowpotassium site in the lowest. Transfer rate of dry matter after wheat flowering, highpotassium site to stem>leaf>sheath, medium and low potassium sites toleaf>sheath>stem, it showed that transfer rate no obvious regularity among stem, leafand sheath. From the contribution rate to see, high, medium and low potassium sitestwo years were stem>leaf>sheath, it showed that the stem to grain contribution ratewas higher.3. Three sites potassium uptake amount of wheat two years were the highest atflowering period. At returning period2010~2011year potassium uptake amountdecreased slightly, but2011~2012year increased slightly. Three sites potassiumuptake amount of wheat low potassium site was higher at the early growth period, atmature period high potassium site was the highest. Three sites maize potassiumuptake amount increased to “line” type before silking period, then increased slowly.Three sites wheat nitrogen uptake increased slowly before returning period,2011~2012year three sites after returning, with the extension of growth period,nitrogen uptake rate were falling. Maize nitrogen uptake amount high and mediumpotassium sites increased to “line” type before silking period, then increased slowly,and low potassium site nitrogen uptake rate was higher during the whole growthperiod. Three sites wheat phosphorus uptake two years increased to “S” type in thewhole growth period. Maize phosphorus uptake two years increased to “line” type inthe whole growth period.4. Wheat potassium in various organs distribution of view, at mature period highpotassium site with stem>sheath>leaf>hull+rachis>grain, medium and low potassiumsites various organs with stem>sheath>hull+rachis>grain>leaf. Maize mature highand medium potassium sites both with stem>leaf>hull+bract>grain>sheath, and lowpotassium site with stem>grain>hull+bract>leaf>sheath. Three sites various organs nitrogen accumulation of wheat maturity two years were allgrain>hull+rachis>leaf>stem>sheath, maize maturity of three sites were allgrain>leaf>stem>hull+bract>sheath. Phosphorus accumulation of wheat various partsat flowering period,2010~2011year three sites were all with spike>leaf>stem>sheath,2011~2012year three sites were all with stem>spike>leaf>sheath, at the matureperiod2010~2011year, high and medium potassium sites were both withgrain>stem>hull+rachis>leaf>sheath, and low potassium site wasgrain>stem>hull+rachis>sheath>leaf,2011~2012year high and low potassium siteswere both with grain> hull+rachis>leaf>sheath>stem, and medium potassium site wasgrain> hull+rachis>leaf>stem>sheath. Phosphorus accumulation of maize variousparts at silking period, high and medium potassium sites were both withleaf>stem>spike>sheath, and low potassium site was leaf>spike>stem>sheath, atmature period three sites were all with grain>leaf>stem>hull+bract>sheath.5. Three sites potassium fertilizer application can significantly increase the yieldof wheat and maize, high potassium site of wheat two years were both with K45+Dtreatment achieve the highest, with potassium fertilizer application increase and thendecrease trend; The medium potassium site2010~2011year wheat yield increase withthe increase of the amount of potassium, with the K135+Dtreatment achieve the highest,2011~2012year with K90+Dtreatment achieve highest. The low potassium site twoyears were both with the K135+Dtreatment achieve the highest and yield increases withthe increase of the amount of potassium. Maize yield of high and medium potassiumsites two years were both with K90+Dtreatment the highest, with the increased ofpotassium fertilizer the yield have declined; And the low potassium site of maize yieldincrease with increasing amount of potassium fertilizer application for two years, bothwith K135+Dtreatment the highest. The results showed that wheat grain yield increasedby6.87%~13.87%,11.19%~18.57%and18.71%~27.49%respectively, maize grainyield respectively are increased by4.76%~12.49%,7.56%~16.08%and7.01%~22.61%after potassium fertilizer application in high, medium and lowpotassium soils.6. Wheat and maize potassium uptake efficiency(KUPE), potassium useefficiency(KUTE), potassium physiological efficiency(PE), potassium recoveryrate(RE), agronomy efficiency(AE), potassium fertilizer partial productivity(PFP),with the increase of potassium fertilizer basically is on the decline for two years,potassium recovery efficiency of high potassium site and low potassium site were higher than that of medium site, the potassium agronomy efficiency maize in mediumsite was higher. The potassium recovery efficiency and agronomy efficiency of wheatwere higher than maize in three sites, and got the higher efficiency when potassiumapplication rate was less than135kg/ha; When potassium rate was90or135kg/ha,wheat and maize got the good effect with two-times application; When potassium ratewas45kg/ha, maize with basic application and wheat with dressing were good.7. Three sites potassium fertilizer treatments available potassium wassignificantly higher than non-potassium treatment, and with the amount of potassiumsignificantly increase the content of soil available potassium. Compared withpre-sowing soil, three sites soil available potassium content decreased by about25%after two years of wheat and maize rotation, high, medium and low potassium stiesnon-potassium treatment soil apparent annual amount of gain or loss, respectively-121.05kg/ha,-86.89kg/ha,-69.38kg/ha, When potassium rate was90or135kg/ha,potassium fertilizer is divided into twice application, potassium balance index waslower, instead the soil available potassium was higher. When potassium rate was45kg/ha, three sites were all topdressing soil available potassium was higher.

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