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Study on the Protein Requirement of Juvenile Mirror Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) at Different Temperature

Author: HuangJinFeng
Tutor: XuQiYou
School: Shanghai Ocean University,
Course: Animal Nutrition and Feed Science
Keywords: Mirror carp Growth performance Digestive enzyme activity Serumbiochemical indexes Non-specific immunity Gene expression
CLC: S965.116
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 15
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Abstract


Growth performance, non-specific immune, biochemical activities of serum,digestive enzymes and expression of gene (IGF-I, of Hsp70and Wap65) in the juveniles(10.11±1.07) of mirror carp was studied under the condition of three growthtemperatures (18℃,23℃,28℃) and five protein level of feed (30%,32%,34%,36%,38%). The experiment was randomly divided into15groups, each group of threerepeats, and each repeated30fish. Fed three times regularly each day, each fed wasappended until without feed remains. The experiment lasted for60days. Weight of thefishes and the feed were measured after starvation for24h. Liver weight, visceralweight and some other growth indicators were calculated; blood collection fordetermination of serum biochemical parameters; the gut were took for digestive enzymeactivity assay; the clipping brain and liver tissue were studied by gene quantitative PCR.The results show that under the conditions of the same protein, fish weight gain rate(WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly as the water temperatureincreased (P<0.05), and the mean values of protein efficiency ratio (PER) at23℃werehigher than other temperature groups; At18℃, Hepatosomatic Index (HIS) andiscerosomatic index (VSI) were higher than23℃and28℃; Serum complement3(C3),complement4(C4), immunoglobulin M (IgM), Superoxide dismutase (SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA) and lysozyme (LSZ) activity increased significantly astemperature increased (P<0.05); With temperature decreasing, serum triglyceride (TG),blood urea nitrogen (BUN), anhydride (CREA), serum total protein (TP), albumin(ALB), alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) decreasedsignificantly (P>0.05), while serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increasedsignificantly (P <0.05). At23℃, the serum glucose (GLU), r-glutamic acid GGT (GGT)levels were significantly higher than the other two temperature group (P<0.05); Activityof protease and amylase was significantly higher (P<0.05), while the lipase activity significantly decreased (P<0.05) with increasing temperature; Quantitative real-timePCR results shows that transcriptional expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-I), warm temperature adaptation protein (Wap65) gene in juvenile brain and livertissue were significantly increased (P<0.05) with increasing temperature, while the geneof heat shock protein (Hsp70) decreased as the temperature increased. Its expressionlevel reach maximum at18℃and minimum at23℃.Under the conditions of the three kinds of growth temperature (18℃,23℃,28℃),WGR and SGR of juvenile increased first and decreased later as the dietary protein levelincreased, and the protein level reached their maximum in32%,38%and36%,respectively; With increasing dietary protein levels, activity of serum C3, C4, IgM, liverSOD, MDA and LSZ first increased (P<0.05) significantly and decreased after that. At18℃, TP and TG content increase as the dietary protein levels increase, while ASTcontent is on the contrary. Concentration of serum total cholesterol (CHOL) in eachprotein group has not significant difference (P>0.05), the contents of BUN, CREA,GLU, ALB, ALT and ALP increase first and decrease after that as the dietary proteinlevel increase. Impact of protein levels on protease and foregut amylase issignificant(P<0.05); Along with dietary protein levels increased, intestinal proteaseactivity was significantly increased (P<0.05), intestinal amylase and lipase activity wasincreased but the difference was not significant (P>0.05); IGF-I gene expression of thetwo tissue in the38%protein group was significantly higher than the30%protein group(P <0.05), while its difference with other feeding groups were not significant (P>0.05).Under a certain protein levers, its expression levels increased as protein levels increased;when the protein level reaches a certain content, its expression was not significantlyaffected by protein levels. Expression of Wap65gene increased significantly withincreased dietary protein levels, and reaching a certain level of protein, the differencewas not significant (P>0.05) between different proteome. Expression of Hsp70genereduced significantly with dietary protein levels increased.Conclusion:1. According to the SGR, FE of mirror carp juveniles is34.32%~34.78%at18℃,35.44%to35.51%at23℃and36.23%to37.12%at28℃.2.Appropriate levels of protein can improve the non-specific immunity of mirror carpjuveniles, on the basis of activity of serum IgM and liver LSZ, optimal protein level ofthe mirror carp juveniles is from34.81%to35.45%at18℃, from35.23%to36.49%at23℃and from36.02%to36.43%at28℃.3.23℃was more conducive to mirror carp mutrition metabolism than18℃and28℃, on the basis of the biochemical activities ofserum, optimal protein level of the mirror carp juveniles is34%at18℃,36%at23℃and36%at28℃.4. Appropriate levels of protein can improve the expression of IGF-Iand Wap65gene, thus promote the growing of the juveniles, on the basis of theexpression of IGF-I、Hsp70and Wap65gene, optimal protein level of the mirror carpjuveniles is34%at18℃,36%at23℃and36%at28℃. In conclusion, optimalrecommended protein level of the mirror carp juveniles is32%~35.45%at18℃,34%~36.49%at23℃and36%~37.12%at28℃.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Aquaculture, fisheries > Aquaculture technology > A variety of fish farming > Freshwater fish > Carp
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