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Research on the Question of the National Government Sending Troops Abroad in the War of Resistance Against Japan

Author: ZhangZhiDan
Tutor: LiuHuiJun
School: Jilin University
Course: Modern Chinese History
Keywords: The War of Resistance against Japan the National Government Sending TroopsAbroad Military Cooperation
CLC: K265
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 116
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Abstract


In the War of Resistance against Japan, Japanese southward tendency wasincreasingly apparent, which threatened the security of southwest base andinternational traffic of China, and had an impact on the interest of France, U.K. andother countries in Southeast Asia. To this end, the National Government no longerstrived for external assistance unilaterally. It tried to promote equal and mutualcooperation against aggression among the major powers: achieving practical militarycooperation and material support of France, U.K. and other countries by defendingtheir colonies in Southeast Asia with troops. However, France, U.K. and othercountries just wanted the National Government to contain the Japanese army as muchas possible in the Chinese battlefield, and did not give a strong support for Chineseplan of sending troops.After the outbreak of the Pacific War, the National Government focused onpromoting a unified command and a comprehensive military plan among the allies, andprepared for the Burma defense and sending troops to Vietnam and Thailand. TheNational Government hoped to change the “Asia Prior to Europe” strategy of the alliesthrough these efforts, in order to achieve the purpose of defeating the Japanese as soonas possible. Because U.K. and U.S. had no confidence on Chinese counter-offensivecapability and U.K. was wary of China, the National Government’s strategic plan didnot receive the attention and support of the allies.The Japanese invasion of Burma promoted the cooperation among China, U.K.and U.S., and the National Government sent expeditionary forces fighting in Burma.Because of the allies’ poor preparation and insufficient investment for countering theJapanese aggression, Sino-British army based on Chinese Expeditionary Force wascaught in a passive position in Burma Campaign. As Chiang Kai-shek and Stilwellmisjudged the enemy situation and misconduct the war, Chinese Expeditionary Forcesuffered significant losses in Burma Campaign.After the failure of Burma Campaign, the National Government actively negotiated with U.K. and U.S. to counterattack the enemy in Burma, and trained theExpeditionary Force and the army stationed in India. U.K. and U.S. insisted on the“Asia Prior to Europe” strategy, and had no intention to meet the NationalGovernment’s various requirements for counterattack in Burma, making theimplementation of a comprehensive counterattack postpone repeatedly, during whichtime there occurred the disputes of local and comprehensive counterattack plans, andcancellation and retention of counterattack plans. Under the pressure of U.S., theNational Government reluctantly accepted the operational plans in North Burma.Chinese Army in India and the Expeditionary Force conducted a painstakingcounterattack in northern Burma and western Yunnan, and finally got through theBurma Road in strong support of the allies.When preparing for the Burma Campaign, the National Government was ready totake military action for the enemy in Thailand and Vietnam affiliated to ChineseTheater. However, the National Government did not get the full of military cooperationof U.K and U.S. and delayed in launching the offensive. U.K. wanted to removeThailand and Vietnam from the Chinese Theater in order to eliminate China’s influencein Southeast Asia as far as possible. Under the consent of U.S., Thailand and southernVietnam was allotted to Southeast Asia Theater led by Mountbatten, and northernVietnam was retained in Chinese Theater.Before and after the Anti-Japanese war, the National Government hoped to sendtroops to occupy Japan in order to assist the allies to transform Japan and avoid Japanbecoming a military threat again. Due to the constraints of internal affairs, the NationalGovernment did not realize the occupation plan.In the War of Resistance against Japan, the National Government considered thequestion of sending troops to Europe, and broke diplomatic relations and declared warwith Germany and Italy in order to promote international cooperation againstaggression. Because of the restriction of many factors, the National Government didn’tsend troops to Europe, which resulted in its limited voice for the aftermath of EuropeanWar.The intention of the National government planning sending troops abroad lied inmaintaining the security of southwest base and international traffic of China, and alsocontained other strategic considerations: ending the war against Japan before the endof European war, and making the National government solve the issues of Chinese northern frontier and Chinese Communist Party before the Soviet Union turned itsattention to the Far East; enhance China’s influence in Southeast Asia, and promotingnational independence movement in Southeast Asia. However, due to the lack ofmilitary strength and instability of domestic politics, the National Government wasunable to change the original strategy of the allies, and hadn’t much attention tointervene in the post-war effort in Southeast Asia Affairs.The National government planning sending troops overseas played a positive rolein obtaining foreign aid and improving China’s international status. The Nationalgovernment also paid a heavy price for it: focusing on striving for externalopportunities and using international conflicts, made the National Government payingno attention to self-remolding and domestic reforms, and finally introducing foreigninterference because of internal problems.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of China > Semi-colonial and semi -feudal society ( 1840 to 1949 ) > New Democratic Revolution Period (1919 ~ 1949 ) > Anti-Japanese War (1937 ~ 1945 )
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