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Study on the Phenomenon of "Pulling Able-bodied Man" in the Rear During the Anti-Japanese War

Author: GongXiLin
Tutor: LiuWei
School: Central China Normal University
Course: Modern Chinese History
Keywords: Anti-Japanese War military service conscription able-bodied man
CLC: K265
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 47
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Abstract


As the brutality of war, economic difficulties, political darkness, educational backwardness and imperfection of social organizations, the phenomenon of pulling, replacement and sale of able-bodied man in the rear area during the war against Japan appears one after another and it brings able-bodied man extreme pain, and simultaneously caused the production and life of the people in poverty, and the social disorder of the rear area. This article starts from the phenomenon of" pulling able-bodied man ", and studies under the social context of the military service system of the national government during the rear area, and shows the true history of pulling the able-bodied man in order to analyze its causes, explain the correcting measures, effect and impact adopted by the national government, and then so as to let us have an objective understanding of the phenomenon of pulling the able-bodied man in the wartime.Drawing on the experience of conscription in Western developed countries. Summing up the lessons of modern Chinese mercenary, especially on the basis of practical needs in the war against Japan, the National Government established a conscription system in1933, and fully implemented after the outbreak of the war against Japan. But due to the conscription drawbacks, the system of Recruiting of able-bodied men, pumping able-bodied men, transferring able-bodied man stipulated by the national government transformed into the system of "pulling able-bodied man ""Pulling able-bodied man ", which exists at the rear of the conscription throughout the provinces, is very obvious in Sichuan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Henan, Guizhou and Shangxi provinces and becomes more prominent in the late period of the war against Japan. As for the main body of "pulling young men", any agency and personnel relevant with recruitment almost have the experience of "pulling able-bodied man ". Primary baojia are the main actors during wartime conscription so they naturally became the main body of "pulling able-bodied man ". The military officers in levels of troops take big favoritism in the course of acceptance, transferrance of able-bodied men, which makes troops of acceptance and transferrance into the hardest hit while pulling able-bodied man. Primary Bao-Jia acts both for completing the task of conscription and promising to find self-interest move in the movement of pulling young men. Transferrance troops at all levels of pulling able-bodied man is purely due to the power of rent-seeking.The phenomenon of pulling able-bodied man was resulted by both the bias of system design and political darkness. Economic difficulties, delays of the household management and the lack of a social security system on soldiers have seriously hampered the implementation of the national government conscription. The design of the Conscription of the National Government such as conscription system defects, such as dualism, a broad system of free deferrable, added first principle, excessive conscription directly or indirectly becomes the root of pulling able-bodied man system. During the process, abuse suffered by able-bodied man and favoritism of towns Bao-Jia impair the enthusiasm the able-bodied man of the army, which makes Primary Bao-Jia in take the measure to force able-bodied man to apply for service.To cope with the reality of urgent need, in the case of inadequate preparation, the National Government had to put the conscription, which should be established on the basis of modernization, in implement in the form of the Bao-Jia riddled system. As during the wartime, the heavy administration, meager economic benefits and low status, some of whom have both ability and integrity bother to do this. So Bao-Jia staff varies greatly, some are the people with evil intentions, or ignoramus, or even tyrants. Therefore, the primary Bao-Jia practice favouritism and commit irregularities pulling strong young men during the recruitment process which come out one after another. But in fact, for the primary subject of conscription Bao-Jia, the result of government constant conscription, able-bodied men managed to escape and amount of troops has to be completed in full and on time, primary Baojia have to suffer destruction and obstruction of criminals, superiors constantly cut words It’s long, but the bottom can’t offend them either. Primary Baojia, as the main wartime conscription not only Suffers low level but games between the higher authority slit and able-bodied man with candidates, local despots, tyrants. In case of the amount of soldiers can not be completed, primary Bao-Jia had to use the method of "pulling able-bodied men to fill up the amount.Against the growing problem of pulling able-bodied men phenomenon, the authorities on all levels from national government down to the local administrative, military authorities take a variety of preventive, corrective measures.from their own reality whose aim is to raise the enthusiasm of able-bodied man join the army through extensive publicity and strengthen military families Preferential treatment, lay the foundation of recruitment through the National Guard and the people’s training group; stop military service fraud through the promulgation of a series of laws and regulations which are used as a deterrence; correct drawbacks instantly in the military service through extensive visits to it; and improve the quality of personnel for military service by training and so on. However, due to wartime restrictions in the objective and subjective environment, these corrective measures ultimately have little effect, and are so far from the desired objectives.During wartime, conscription of pulling able-bodied men has had a major impact in the increase of the soldiers and the production of social life of the rear. Pulling able-bodied man makes not only the sharp decline in the quality of young men, but also escapement of the able-bodied man after entering the camp. As able-bodied man pulled are mostly main labors in rural areas, it seriously affects production of the rear area. The resistance of the able-bodied men, also intensifies social unrest of the rear area. Meanwhile, pulling able-bodied man makes the national government in the state of lower prestige and then losing its people which becomes one of the important causes of its collapse. The cross of pulling able-bodied men in the Wartime and image of the "forced recruitment" during the post-war civil war and the spread of literary and artistic works "forced recruitment" form collective memory.Although the policy of pulling able-bodied man brought great pain to the majority of able-bodied men and had a tremendous impact on the wartime conscription policy. However, from the final results of the war, more than fourteen million soldiers apparently are not all forced to join the army. On this basis, we should obtain an objective rather than emotional evaluation on the behavior of pulling able-bodied man and the national government’s recruitment policy at wartime.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of China > Semi-colonial and semi -feudal society ( 1840 to 1949 ) > New Democratic Revolution Period (1919 ~ 1949 ) > Anti-Japanese War (1937 ~ 1945 )
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