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Chinese state-run commercial development research 1949-1965

Author: LiBingSheng
Tutor: ZuoKunHe
School: Guizhou University of Finance and Economics
Course: Economic History
Keywords: Chinese Commerce State-owned Commerce CommercialSystem
CLC: K27
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 32
Quote: 0
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Abstract


The overall development of Chinese state-owned commerce is divided into three major stages.The first phase is called Establishment Period of the New Chinese Commerce System, which lasts from1949to1952.With the commencement of the work to restore the national economy, China established a "state-owned commerce for the leadership,the coexistence of a variety of economic ingredients and market-circulation oriented commerce"pattern.The system of socialist commercial organization as the leadership has been established initially,and the purchasing of industrial and agricultural products began to make an active market between urban and rural areas.All these characteristics have laid a big premise for the development of state-owned commerce in this period.The second phase is called Integration Period of the New Chinese Commerce System, which lasts from1953to1957. From1953onward,accompany with China’s first five-year plan,the Chinese Communist Party put forward the general routine of the transition to socialism, and the transition began.The realization of the socialist transformation of private business in commercial sector has been done according to the general routine, and eventually, the Planned Commercial System was established. During this period, the state not only adjusted the supply-and-market management system of state-owned commerce,but also implemented the national monopolies of important agricultural products.The orders of private industries were strengthened while the expansion of the allocation about industrial resources,meanwhile the private commerce was been transformed.Besides, in the process of squeezing capitalism in the wholesale market and implementing joint business in all aspects of retail segment,which could guide small business operators to take co-operative way.These changes all provided a new environment for state-owned commerce in this period.The third phase is called "Great Leap Forward"and Adjustment in China’s Commerce Period,which lasts from1953to1957. After completion of the first five-year plan,China’s socialist economic system and preliminary foundation of socialist industrialization have been established.But from1958onward,the general routine of socialist construction was proposed without carrying out the second five-year national economic development plan. In commercial sector,"big purchase and big sales"made a huge waste,while commercial system’s change decentralized the state-owned commerce.The supply-and-marketing cooperatives in this period was once transformed into state-owned commerce. All these brought a lot of difficulties to commercial adjustment and recovery in the next period.With the "Great Leap Forward"campaign ended,these issues have been resolved to varying degrees.First of all, the market supply got through the most difficult period;the second is a variety of business forms were gradually restored after adjusting the commercial system. Overall, the "Great Leap Forward" and "people’s communes"movement led to disrupt our normal economic order,meanwhile,the development in all economic areas was damaged with the great shock in state-owned commerce guided by radical ideology. After the adjustment of economy, the development in all economic areas has gradually stabilized around1965and1966.Generally speaking, retail sales、the number of business companies and total employees have made remarkable achievements with the rapid development of Chinese state-owned commerce between1949and1965,The monopoly and control in China’s commercial sector was rapidly realized. we can evaluate the total performance from two perspectives:On the one hand, a strategy of priority development in heavy industry was been consolidated, and it has been established in the field of commercial supply. On the other hand,because of its excessive political needs, state-owned commerce has been grown to a single large stuff, which not only affect their own development,but also hampered the overall development of China’s business to a certain extent,and did serious constraints to the social effects which served people’s commercial life in that period.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of China > People's Republic of China period ( 1949 ~)
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