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Research on German Foreign Cultural Policy

Author: GuoYuanQi
Tutor: ZuoQingZhi
School: Shandong University
Course: International political
Keywords: Germany cultural foreign policy soft power ideological transformation cultural agency inter-culture dialogue
CLC: G1
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 620
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Abstract


As one of the countries with longer history on cultural diplomacy in the world, and also one strong player in modern cultural diplomacy since the World War Ⅱ, the Federal Republic of Germany plays an important role in forging cultural diplomatic strategy of the European Union. Up to now, the world has witnessed the100th anniversary of foreign cultural policy of Germany. In different era of its history, with the curve of domestic politics, Germany presented distinct concepts and principles on foreign cultural policy, as well as unique practice to the world. Especially after the World War Ⅱ, the foreign cultural policy contributed much to the reconstruction of German image badly damaged by two world wars on the world stage, and to the trust-regaining from its western partners. With culture as core element, the diplomatic policies and actions bear unique advantage and characteristics from political and economic diplomacy; namely, cultural diplomacy possesses the attraction of "Soft Power". However, the cultural diplomacy and policies, though, vital component to the Soft Power, the research on it stays a rather weak part among the academia of international politics. Hence, this doctoral study focuses on the German foreign cultural policies.What is the real scenario during the birth and growth of German cultural foreign policy since the second half of the19th century? What kind of international political ideas and diplomatic mode serve as its behaving guidance? What’s new in the concept, principle, managing mechanism and practice of German cultural diplomacy in modern times, especially at the post-cold war era? What kind of difference lies among the foreign cultural policies of Germany in various regions of the globe? All these above-stated questions are of great interest for the author to explore in this dissertation.After selecting the studying subject, it is necessary to choose appropriate theory and methodology. At the aspect of theory, the Rationalism and the Constructionism have individual explanatory power for international issues. Before the end of World War Ⅱ in1945, the stubborn power politics dominate German cultural diplomacy when dealing with the international cultural relations. Namely, German cultural foreign policy is a Slave Girl of the power politics. After the war, the main ideological basis of German foreign policy read as "European Germany", instead of "German Europe". In this period, German cultural foreign policy acts as the guardian of cooperation politics. In short, the role of German cultural diplomacy from a tool of power politics turns into the instrument of cooperation politics. To explain the development and the status quo of German cultural diplomacy, suitable theoretical framework is needed. Instead of being confined to a certain theory, this dissertation is based on available theoretical resources, and raises a persuasive explanatory framework.As far as the methodology is concerned, not only the causal logic and the empirical analysis, but also the interpretation and the inter-subject dialogue can serve as method for acquiring different kinds of knowledge. It is proper for the rational causal logic to explain the European political situation before the Second World War, but it fails to interpret the new value orientation of foreign policy, i.e. the so-called Europeanization of European national states including Germany at post-war era. In this dissertation, literature recherche, qualitative combined with quantitative analysis and case study serve as the main research methods.This dissertation consists of6parts, namely, introduction and5chapters.In the introduction part, the research background on the topic about German cultural diplomacy is reviewed. Inspirited by the significance of cultural diplomacy as soft power, the author is interested at the practices of German cultural foreign policy. Based on the literature analysis of the status quo for academic research on German cultural diplomacy, the research subject and the theoretical framework are outlined.Chapter1German Traditional Ideas and Practices on Cultural Foreign PolicyGerman Traditional Cultural Foreign Policy refers to the German ideas and practices on foreign policy at the aspect of culture from the year of1871to the end of the World War II. In the eyes of the author, there are3important stages constituting the development of the traditional cultural diplomacy of Germany. In this chapter, firstly, the ideas, mechanism and practices in the period between the unification of the German Empire to the establishment of the Weimar Republic are narrated. Secondly, the feature of cultural foreign policies during the Weimar Republic is summarized. Thirdly, the performance of German cultural foreign policies when Nazi was in power is stated. During this traditional period, the cultural foreign policies were regarded by German Government as the soft propaganda tool for power state. The diplomacy stylized itself as unilateral practice, and resulted in obvious negative effect.Chapter2The Development Vein of Modern Cultural Diplomacy of GermanyModern cultural diplomacy of Germany could be divided into2phases:the formulation and the Maturation. The formulation stage refers to the time period from the establishment of German Federal Republic to the end of the cold war. In this period, the unilateral way of propaganda was abandoned. On the contrary, the reciprocity of cultural exchange was emphasized, and the multilateral policies were implemented. The German cultural diplomacy showed the sign of mutuality, sincerity, and authenticity. This is the beginning of positive function of the cultural diplomacy. For the maturation stage, from the end of World War II to today, the multilateral concept has been internalized by the policy actors, and concretely embodied in the policy discourse and practice of German cultural diplomacy. At the same time, the properties of sincerity and authenticity get enhanced. That is the time when German diplomatic history entered the phase of maturity.Chapter3Modern Policy Making and Managing Mechanism of German Cultural DiplomacyWith the development of German cultural diplomacy in recent100years, its policy making and managing mechanism differentiate itself from the French mode of government-monopoly, and the English mode of laissez faire. This chapter focuses on analyzing German mode of cultural diplomacy mechanism on the basis of respectively investigating the level of the official and non-governmental cultural agencies, which hold different responsibilities, privileges and functions in the managing mechanism. The federal government, the federal state government and the non-governmental cultural agencies play various policy roles, and are close related with each other. German cultural diplomacy mode features as followed: official foreign cultural agencies distinguish themselves from, and cooperate with their non-governmental colleagues; the concrete handling of foreign cultural issues separate from and coordinate with the governing power.Chapter4The Cases of German Modern Cultural Foreign Policies in Key Regions of the WorldWith the assistance of case studies, this chapter discusses German foreign cultural ideas and practices in key regions in the world. Firstly, the case on German cultural policy for France gives us German policy ideas in western countries. Secondly, the case of German cultural policy in Poland shows the policy focus of its diplomacy in east Europe. Thirdly, the cases of German cultural policies for Arabian area and China display the present situation and the characteristics of German cultural policies for the developing countries.Chapter5ConclusionWith the end of the World War Ⅱ as the turning point, German cultural diplomacy underwent obvious role transformation from the invading tool of power state to the instrument of cooperation politics. As a kind of policy idea and principle, the cultural diplomacy defines the diplomatic behavior at the aspect of culture. The soft-power-effect of the cultural diplomacy depends on the ultimate ideas of policy actors, not on the resources of soft power.German cultural diplomacy managing mechanism guarantees the determining power and influence of the government on cultural foreign policy, and protects the autonomy of foreign cultural agencies. Meanwhile, the mechanism serves as an institutional safeguard for the governmental obligation of financial support for and supervision on cultural policy, and on the other hand, arouses the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of foreign cultural agencies.Under the consideration on the real situation of target country in modern time, German cultural diplomacy respects the mutuality, sincerity, authenticity and sustainability of the modern cultural communication. Hence, pertinence principle is vital for German cultural diplomacy in different regions of the world:the cultural policies in the US aim to be sustainable, in France and Poland more sincere and authentic, while in Arabian area and China reciprocity gets a prominent position. In short, with the goal of achieving the positive policy effect, German modern cultural diplomacy not only retains the traditional core items, but also creates new policy content with the times.

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