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Study on Industrialization Development of Deep-Sea Strategic Resoruces Explotiation in China

Author: JiangBingGuo
Tutor: HanLiMin
School: Ocean University of China
Course: Agricultural Economics and Management
Keywords: Deep-sea Strategic Resources Deep-sea Mineral Resources Deep-sea Biological Resources Industrialization Exploitation
CLC: P74
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 141
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Based on the definition of marine resources and strategic resources, this paper put forward the concept of deep-sea strategic resources. Deep-sea strategic resources hidden deep in the seawater, seabed and subsoil, can be utilized in the present and foreseeable future, and play an important role in improving human’s welfare, solving resource crisis and promoting scientific research. Deep-sea strategic resources mainly include deep-sea oil and gas resources, deep-sea mineral resources and deep-sea organisms (genetic) resources. Deep-sea strategic resources have the characteristics of future, dynamic, regional, abundant, political and so on. They also have important value, such as economic value, environmental value, existence value, heritage value and political value. Economic value is the main factor of promoting industrialization exploitation of deep-sea strategic resources. At present, cost-benefit is the major issue that hinders exploitation of deep-sea resources. However, scarcity and exploitation costs rising of land resources, and the resulting supply uncertainty, improves expected return of deep-sea strategic resources exploitation. Relatively scarce of land resources becomes the main driving force of deep-sea strategic resources exploitation. From the perspective of sustainable development, deep-sea strategic resources exploitation does significant harm to marine ecosystems and environment. To a certain extent, industrialization exploitation of deep-sea strategic resources can be considered a“zero-sum game”of economic value and environmental value, and only when the economic benefits brought by deep-sea strategic resource exploitation is much more than losses of environment value, the commercial exploitation can be achieved. On the other hand, based on the special political status of deep-sea area under the existing international maritime system, industrialization exploitation of deep-sea strategic resources was constrained by international relationship and marine institution.Based on the analysis of characteristics and the main affecting factors of strategic resources’exploitation, this paper did an empirical study on deep-sea mineral resources and biological (genetic) resource using the basic theory and analysis methods of natural resources economics and industrial economics. Deep-sea mineral resources mainly include polymetallic nodules, cobalt-rich crusts and hydrothermal sulfide. Price fluctuations of manganese, cobalt, chromium, nickel, copper, gold and other metal products caused by relatively scarcity of land mineral resources and instability of supply, as well as the environment problem becomes the main factor constrains industrialization exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources. With characteristics of high investment, high technology and high risk, industrialization exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources is a complex project, which needs cross-sectoral, cross-industry cooperation. It was constrained by many factors, such as natural resources and geographical conditions, socio-political, economic development, and science-technology. There are three kinds of exploitation model, stock-based international cooperation model, industry cluster development model based on bases construction, and circular economics development model. Three development models are parallel and existence simultaneously, that is to say, stock-based international cooperation is the core model in industrialization exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources, but industry cluster development and circular economics model should also be adhered to. In order to accelerate the deep-sea mineral resources’industrialization exploitation process, deep-sea exploitation strategy, mainly including resources possession strategy, deep-sea science and technology development strategy, international cooperation strategy, joint exploitation strategy, and organization management strategy, should be established.Deep-sea organisms (genetic) resource is of another important resource in the study, and it mainly includes deep-sea fish and deep-sea extremophiles which has important economic and scientific research value.Principle of ecological priority should be adhered to in deep-sea fish resources exploitation, and the development of deep-sea fisheries depends on an effective resources global management system. The core of deep-sea fisheries resources global management is development and effective implementation of international management system, including deep-sea fishing permit system, catch limits and fishing quotas, fishing tax system and fishing banned (moratorium) system, construction of deep-sea biological resources protection areas, and so on. The key is further development of international fisheries cooperation, that is deep-sea fisheries resources protection cooperation, deep-sea fishing cooperation, deep-sea aquatic products trade cooperation between global and regional fisheries organizations, port countries, and aquatic products import or export countries. In the process of deep-sea extremophiles industrialization exploitation, R & D and intellectual property is the key. Combination of "production-learning- research" based on intellectual property obtaining and transferring, is the main development way of deep-sea gene industry.Therefore,have to pass to strongly develop deep-sea organisms genes techniques, push the development. of deep-sea living organisms genes industry in china.

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CLC: > Astronomy,Earth Sciences > Oceanography > Marine resources and development
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