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Studies on Ethnobotany and Cultivar Resources of Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) in Henan Province

Author: KongDeZheng
Tutor: YangQiuSheng
School: Henan Agricultural University
Course: Forest cultivation
Keywords: Lotus Ethnobotany Germplasm Resources Genetic diversity ISSR Molecular evaluation Cluster analysis
CLC: S682.32
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 122
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Abstract


Lotus is one of the oldest cultivated plants, according to research, China has 3000 years of cultural history, has a wealth of cultivars and local resources, many excellent wild and native lotus resources has not yet been effective development and utilization. Lotus occupies a unique position in the evolution of angiosperms. Lotus is one of the first plant, known as the \germ special structure, the chloroplast developmental pathways are quite different and the water lily. In this paper, the lotus ethnobotany has been systematically studied, from the level of morphological and DNA molecules to evaluate the introduction of genetic diversity and the resources of the local varieties of lotus Henan. Ethnobotany research in key areas, while taking into China's Henan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Shanxi, Shandong and other Yellow River birthplace of civilization. 1, for the study of ancient Chinese culture and modern literature material, after a regional survey, a detailed argument of the historical origins of the lotus, inheritance relationship and the origin of varieties, cultivation techniques, the evolution of the context, in 5000 years ago Henan Yangshao culture archaeological find indoor countertop carbonation lotus, indicating that it has long been the seeds as food; recorded in 3000 years ago, \people have begun to grow food lotus root. According to the research sites Suzhou Yeongam Mountain \Potted lotus recorded history was first seen in more than 1600 years ago the Eastern Jin Dynasty calligrapher Wang Xizhi \more than 10 branches, is quite impressive. \1400 years ago the Northern Wei Jia Sixie \Study the formation of lotus cultural, historical evolution: (1) the lotus and the people closely related to daily life, due to the expanding range of applications, cultivation technology continues to progress, the increasing variety of the productive activities gradually entertainment, lotus gradually become ornamental plants. (2) In the long course of history, the lotus ideological connotations and cultural implication the deepening development of lotus beautiful, auspicious and holy symbolism continue to be sublimated and expand, on behalf of the unique Chinese national cultural environment and religious art system According to legend, on behalf of. (3) of our ancient cultural heritage from ancient to modern times, narrative, praise the beautiful lotus, lotus is also becoming a cultural symbol, it represents a noble literati Day parade. (4) With the development of culture, lotus has also become important religious holy things, especially with the religions of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, a particularly close relationship. Lotus cultural specificity sufficient to explain the special status of traditional Chinese culture, penetration in all aspects of life, to bring aesthetic pleasure of the senses, spiritual sustenance and satisfaction, and became a source of artistic creation draw countless substances. 3, the study of ancient lotus ornamental, edible and medicinal methods and historical heritage The results show that very early ornamental lotus: The ancestors of Xia, Shang and Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui and Tang Song Lotus heritage and development of ancient Chinese garden, to the Ming clear, gentleman Bede ideological influence, the lotus in the private garden flourish. Lotus lotus root, lotus petals are edible. Contains the traditional culture of the ancient food lotus lotus plant resources use and protection of traditional knowledge, and there is a the lotus biological diversity management and use simple scientific connotation; herbal medicine research lotus, lotus seeds, lotus clothing, lotus room, lotus required, lotus heart, lotus leaf, the Netherlands Terrier, Oujie can be medicinal, lotus blood to stop bleeding, the lotus can raise heart, lotus shall kidney, lotus leaf slimming Sanyu Oujie, antipyretic poison, charge stems ventilation line water, pure heart and purging fire. 4, the main varieties of the investigation of the of Henan lotus local varieties (lines) as well as the introduction and cultivation, study the geographical distribution of each species, lotus germplasm resources protection in Henan method to promote lotus genetic diversity protection and rational utilization. 96 determine the varieties of Henan lotus and has been successfully introduced, stable traits, there are a number of varieties is in the stage of introduction and domestication. On the scale of planting lotus lotus cultivation to production needs, lotus lotus varieties 8, mainly in the Huang-Huai River Basin. Hualien varieties mainly to the introduction of the main traits of 88, mainly in the province of the city park and scenic area. Lotus seed production needs almost nothing, the existing seed lotus varieties and Hualien ornamental. Local varieties (lines) 31, 15 wild, semi-wild strains, mainly distributed in various cities south of the Yellow River Village waters and wetlands. Henan Lotus lack of resources, small type, and the number of varieties of each type of distribution is very uneven. On the basis of the resource survey to further explore the possibility, necessity and feasibility of the traditional culture of modern biodiversity conservation. 5, on the basis of of Henan lotus species resources survey, in Henan growth traits introduced species stable 96 31 select local varieties (lines) Fourier long, the Fourier wide, petiole, groups of flowering, the flower density, bud-shaped, bud color, state flowers, flower diameter, color, pattern, number of petals, petal length, petal width, pedicel high 15 ornamental characteristics appraisal screening, Henan the cultivars resources evaluation system . Grey Situation Policy in the gray system theory, the use of the traits weighted Situation Decision Method, 127 Henan cultivated lotus varieties (lines) Main Characters indicators analysis, and are listed in order of the pros and cons of all varieties, ornamental characteristics The top ten were 'spending Kam', 'potherb mustard', 'Aoshuang', 'Elian', 'Winter Red', Ling Baoding of bays Lotus strains, 'Those bewitching eyes , the income counties Chen shed Wang, Lake lotus strains, 'Dawn', the Roshan High Bay Village lotus strains, three local varieties (lines) in the top ten, lotus breeding native species of the resources of the the lotus important pro. A comprehensive evaluation of the lotus species provide a more objective method of analysis. 6 'doll lotus', 'Danxia', 'Taiwan Red' 96 Henan main cultivated varieties of lotus and 'abalone Wen Lin', 'futures thinking lotus' 31 local varieties (lines) 26 traits principal component analysis affect the classification of varieties of lotus several key indicators: plant size and flower diameter, pattern, color and flower state. Plants the size of the first-class standards of the classification of varieties of lotus flowers as second-class standards, the color for the third-class standards, flowers state of the fourth level of the standard. Excluding two approximate morphological traits, numerical taxonomy Q cluster analysis of 24 traits of 127 Henan cultivation lotus varieties (lines). By analyzing the division in conjunction with line L0 = 3.7453 at lotus species divided into two categories, namely the group of plant type (I) and small and medium-sized plant type group (class II); combination of line L2 = 2.8234 in turn strains type complex is divided into three categories, namely, group A, group B, and C group. Combination of line L4 = 2.5671 turn small and medium-sized plant type group divided into three categories, namely, weight bench class (group D), the plena class (E group F), less flap and semidouble class (group G). Below these categories can be divided into a number of subcategories. Lotus breeding and production needs, according to the characteristics of various types of varieties related to selection, breeding and production to reduce blindness and workload. 7 to study the the lotus genetic diversity of molecular evaluation. Building ISSR genetic distance tree; supplement and improve the lotus species classification system. The results are as follows: (1) The the ISSR reaction procedures established, ISSR-PCR amplification reaction procedures: 94 ° C pre-denaturing 5 min denaturation at 94 ° C for 30 s, 49 ° C to 54 ° C annealing (annealing temperature with different primers) 30s, extension at 72 ° C for 90s, 30 cycles of 72 ° C extension for 7 min, 10 ° C save. (2) primer screening, the present study were screened five primers amplified 44 bands, 25 polymorphic bands per primer 5.0 polymorphic bands, primers polymorphic information content ranged from 26.7% to 66.7%, an average of 56.8%. 3 primer UBC811 is six polymorphic bands (850bp, 710bp, 590bp, 460bp, 329bp, 283bp), UBC840 the four polymorphic bands (1235bp, 875bp, 691bp, 210bp) and UBC880 a polymorphic bands (406bp) 33 lotus varieties (lines) can be completely separate, 33 lotus varieties (lines) DNA fingerprinting. (3) genetic similarity analysis of genetic similarity coefficient, calculated in accordance with the results of DNA amplification varieties most concentrated in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 by ISSR molecular marker analysis results can be seen, the lotus-rich variation and larger genetic diversity should be a result of long evolution and the evolution of Chinese lotus. (4) UPGMA cluster analysis, cluster can be broadly divided into four major groups, ie groups I collected from the Spirit of Baoding bays, Lingbao to 33 lotus varieties (lines) with the UPGMA method, Sanmenxia Swan Lake, civil rights Lin seven reservoirs, Yucheng Joe set the Black Dragon Pool, Yucheng Missy set Tam Hang six strains' falling clouds Yingxue of ',' Your face drunk Cup ',' smile ',' green desk ',' Lixia ',' Changbai lotus', '3735', 'the Chu Tianxiang cloud '8 varieties; Part II taxa the' Dicui lotus', 'purple Yulian', 'exposed lips',' small gardenia ',' Butterfly ',' Dan top Jade Court ',' Revlon ',' whites', who Buddha 'drunk Pear', the 'pink violet', 'beauty Fang', 'Block' 'cream Chenyue', 'oriole', 'Night Pearl', 'small bilian '16 varieties;' goose 'Ⅲ group;' The sky was clear 'and' Cui Wei Sunset 'groups IV.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Gardening > Ornamental Horticulture ( flowers and ornamental trees) > Perennial Flowers > Other Flowers > Aquatic plants
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