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The Experimental Study on Furrow Irrigation Pattern of Corn in Semi-Arid Region of Western Heilongjiang Province

Author: ZhaoYuYu
Tutor: WeiYongXia
School: Northeast Agricultural University
Course: Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering
Keywords: Semiarid area of western Heilongjiang Furrow Corn Yield Water use efficiency Physiological characteristics Mode Optimization
CLC: S513
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 36
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Semiarid area of ??western Heilongjiang is China's major grain production bases, and the average annual precipitation in the area of ??the water shortage problem is very serious. However, due to the economic underdevelopment of China's farmland irrigation still based on traditional furrow, groove surface irrigation technology-based, more serious waste of water resources. In recent years, experts and scholars have proposed alternate furrow irrigation this new water-saving irrigation techniques, the study of this technology in the Northwest Territories has been more mature, but also in Heilongjiang Province and the northeast region, in order to ascertain the alternate furrow irrigation areas in Heilongjiang appropriate circumstances, windy drier semiarid area of ??western Heilongjiang serious spring drought, low food production and crop water use efficiency of practical problems, in Dumeng conventional irrigation alternating every furrow irrigation and fixed furrow irrigation three kinds of water-saving irrigation methods under different irrigation levels combined trials, research different irrigation methods different irrigation levels on corn growth, yield and water use efficiency, and to provide the necessary development of local water-saving agriculture Theory and technical support. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) comparison of deep soil moisture, the conventional irrigation at 80 ~ 100cm soil still slowly increasing phenomenon, fixed furrow irrigation did not change significantly, alternate furrow irrigation remained basically unchanged. Conventional irrigation water movement in the soil on the vertical direction. Alternative furrow irrigation and fixed furrow irrigation treatments moisture in vertical infiltration while there lateral movement to reduce deep percolation of moisture in the soil. (2) the level of the same irrigation water consumption under different furrow irrigation patterns difference but the difference is small. Different ways the same irrigation irrigation level, the crop water consumption and water consumption intensity increased gradually with increasing irrigation amount. The conventional irrigation throughout the growing period processing corn consumption intensity is greater than the other two approaches. (3) alternate furrow irrigation and fixed furrow irrigation treatments make irrigation side of the root in a wet state, the other side of the root system in a drier state control roots in different regions of the wet and dry conditions, the root system to withstand some degree of drought exercise in the right amount of water deficit, can promote the accumulation of dry matter. The test results show that furrow irrigation of crops, leaf area, plant height, stem circumference, dry matter accumulation and root growth are less conventional irrigation, mild water deficit, AFI, even better than conventional irrigation. Fixed furrow irrigated corn growing more severe water stress is worse than the other treatments. (4) under the same irrigation level, alternating irrigation and fixed irrigation early growth stage photosynthetic rate than conventional irrigation decreased; late growth stage, fixed irrigation is still a certain degree of reduction, but the alternative irrigation photosynthetic rate close to or more than conventional irrigation. Compared with the photosynthetic rate, alternative irrigation the the fixed irrigation transpiration rate decrease compared with conventional irrigation. Same irrigation methods, the photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of maize growing with the decline of irrigation amount significantly reduced, especially in more severe water stress decreased more significantly. The value of the leaves water use efficiency depends on the relative speed of the photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate changes. (5) The number of single ear decreased with the decline of irrigation amount; same irrigation level, single ear of alternative irrigation exhibit certain advantages and disadvantage of fixed irrigation. Different irrigation methods corn yield is achieved mainly through the increase of the corn kernel weight. The same irrigated grain yield under different irrigation levels significant difference, in particular, fell more severe water shortages. Studies have shown that moderate water deficit, the processing efficiency of water use is relatively high, especially alternating every ditch irrigation highest, the conventional irrigated reduce irrigation than normal irrigation 29%, while yield 4.93%, water use efficiency of 29.9%. Appropriate to reduce the amount of irrigation and alternate furrow irrigation can ensure the grain yield, but also improve the efficiency of water use. (6) In this paper, accelerating genetic algorithm based on real coding projection pursuit model, gray correlation method based on entropy weight two evaluation methods for analysis and evaluation of corn furrow mode, optimal irrigation patterns under moderate water deficit alternately Furrow irrigation, the way in irrigation volume reduced by 29% under the premise, optimal water use efficiency in all treatments, and to obtain the highest yield and maximum net income.

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