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Rising Power of Regional Offices of Foreign Affairs in T’ang, Silla and Japan in the 8th and 9th Centuries and the Formation of East Asian Trade Circle

Author: CheZuoHe
Tutor: ChenShangSheng
School: Shandong University
Course: Specialized History
Keywords: ZiqingPinglu Jiedushi Qinghaizhen Dazaifu Private trade East Asian Trade Circle
CLC: K242
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2009
Downloads: 215
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The formation of East Asian Trade Circle in the 8th and 9th centuries was an outcome of the vibrant development in private trade led by merchants of T’ang,Silla, and Japan.Exploring the trade circle in the context of the social,economic,and political circumstances of the three countries during the period,this dissertation investigates following questions:1.Were there any changes in the relationship between the central and regional governments of T’ang,Silla and Japan,which had significant impacts on the three countries?2.How did the changes in the diplomatic relationships between the three countries influence each country’s domestic circumstances and its international relationships?3.What were the impacts of the development of regional governments, especially the establishment of ZiqingPingluJiedushi(淄青平卢节度使), Qinghaizhen(清海镇),and Dazaifu(大宰府),on private trade in T’ang, Silla and Japan?This dissertation is based on the analysis of the three governmental offices in East Asia:ZiqingPinglu Jiedushi(淄青平卢节度使) of T’ang Dyansty,Qinghaizhen(清海镇) of Silla and Dazaifu(大宰府) of Japan.Analyzing the development of these ministries and their interrelationships in the context of the domestic and international affairs of each country,this study examines the impacts of the changes in private trade on the formation of East Asian Trade Circle.This dissertation consists of five chapters.Chapter 1,as an introduction to this study,presents research goals,significances and literature review,which examines related studies on this issue published in China,Korea and Japan.The following three chapters,in historical sequence,provide detailed examination of the establishment and development of the three offices of trade in East Asia in relation to the development of private trade in the region.Chapter 2 investigates trade activities led by Ziqing Pinglu Jiedushi(淄青平卢节度使),governed by the House of Li Zhengji(李正己),focusing on the time before and after An Lushan and Shi Siming Rebellion(安史之乱). Exploring the background and development of Ziqing Pinglu Jie dushi(淄青平卢节度使),which as derived from Pinglujun(平卢军) but turned into a military governor of a separatist regime,this chapter proposes that 55 years’ trade activities led by the House of Li Zhengji in now Shandong(山东) province had laid a foundation for the development of private trade in T’ang,Silla and Japan.Chapter 3 describes the trade activities led by Zhang Baogao(张保皋),the commissioner of Qinghaizhen(清海镇) in Silla.Analyzing domestic circumstances of Silla and its diplomatic policy,this chapter explores the background of the establishment of Qinghaizhen and its leading role in the East Asian sea commerce and argues that Zhang Baogao’s maritime trade with Japan owed in a great deal to the development of the House of Li Zhengji. Chapter 4 examines the development of Dazaifu(大宰府) in Japan,illustrating its origin and its relationship to private trade activities in the Far East.This chapter suggests that by replacing the leading power of Silla in East Asian trading,T’ang Dynasty had a significant role in the rapid development of the private trade led by Silla merchants and in the implementation of Japan’s trading policy that differentiated the merchants of Silla and T’ang.In chapter 5,summarizing the main features of East Asian Trade Circle,this study concludes that the trade circle was fully fledged by the 9th century at the latest,not as a continuation or expansion of tributary trade between the three countries,but as a result of the proliferation of private trade in East Asia.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of China > Feudal society ( 475 BC - AD 1840 ) > Sui and Tang period ( 581 ~ 1840 ) > Tang Dynasty ( 618 ~ 907 years)
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