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Research on History and Art of Enamel Painted Porcelain in Qing Court: 1716-1789

Author: ZhouSiZhong
Tutor: ChenJinHai
School: Tsinghua University
Course: Art of Design
Keywords: Qing court imperial kiln enamel painted porcelain evolvement causes art and culture characteristics
CLC: J526
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2006
Downloads: 765
Quote: 3
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Qing court enamel painted porcelain crowns Ming and Qing painted porcelain which has been regarded as one of the elite craftworks in the world’s art treasure. How did it been invented? How did it develop? When was it declined and why? What are the relationships of its characteristic and style with the history of 18th century-as well as awareness of Qing emperors? What is the intrinsic attribution of imperial kiln? And what is the historical influence of Qing court enamel painted porcelain? In discussing and demonstrating those questions above, this paper will put forward my own ideas that compose the central part of this paper.In order to solving those questions above, this paper traces from historical record of Ming and Qing,imperial kilns and Qing court enamel workshops of Imperial Household Department; finds influences of Qing Emperors’ lives in 18th century as well as the politics, economy, culture, art history at . that time on enamel painted porcelain production; counts on the number, sort, shape, figure and style of the existing Qing court enamel painted porcelain and discusses historical reasons and cultural background of those characteristics roots; analyses its formation causes, ascertains its features and evaluates its influence through the art evolvement. It is no doubt that those topic discussions are the key points that need to pay much attention.This paper ascertains the maximum production period of Qing court enamel painted porcelain is no more than 73 years (Kangxi 55 -- Qianlong 54). The paper also confirms the function of its place, assistance, guiders, managers, imperial kiln administrators and assistant producers; the pictures in enamel workshop, the origin, name, work division and number of artisans; the close relationship with bronze enamel production and art style, the relations with imperial bronze material supply and its production characteristics; the paper analyses evolvement of the quality, shape, figures and styles of enamel painted porcelain and points out art and culture link trend that have advantages both in art and culture integration: Moreover, one of the Qing kiln successful conditions is the social elites "creativity flip-flop" which was caused by the high-pressure politics held by governors in early Qing dynasty toward those elites and drove them turn from joining politics actively to put their feelings in art. Another important element for its success is the "Date mark stimulating effect" which made Qing emperors pay more attention on emperor kiln products and made it had finer quality and technique. Features of Qing kilns can beconcluded as dogmatic, monopolized, closed, extravagant, symbolic and fragile. Psychological change of court artisans is a process from "collective invention" to "collective restrain", which no doubt become a summarizing conclusion for this paper.Qing court enamel painted porcelain created a new breed for Ming Qing painted porcelain. It discovered a new developing road for the update and development of painted porcelain in 18th century, pushed on-glaze industry walk out of traditional design and went into a porcelain decorating style based on fine painting, infused bran-new vigor for Jingdezhen painted porcelain industry. This art had not only been mastered by Jingdezhen imperial kiln, but also influenced China civil kilns behind 18th century and export of Jingdezhen kilns in 18th century. It provided core competing power for China’s porcelain industry in 18th century and also made foundation for the development of national painted porcelain dye industry in 19th and 20th century. Qing court enamel painted porcelain offers material and spiritual samples for production involution of Jingdezhen china industry from 18th to20th century. It also represented a new erection of national culture integration in art creation. Certainly, it was also a restriction for Qing porcelain development at the same time.

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