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The Western Risk Society Theory and Inspiration for Constructing Harmonious Society in Our Country

Author: CuiDeHua
Tutor: XuYanLing
School: Shandong University
Course: Marxist Theory and Ideological and Political Education
Keywords: Risk Risk Society Risk Society theory Socialist harmonious society
CLC: D61
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 2503
Quote: 12
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Seeing from the background of risk society theory, the western society is experiencing the rapid-development process of globalization, its rapid development means mobility, so lot of factors embody the characteristic of great liquidity and unsteadiness, and this boosts appearance of risks. This means that globalization promotes the development of social productive power, brings the happiness for people, however, it also brings a lot of disturbing risk pictures: nuclear possibility, ecological risks, the collapse of global economic exchange, and other potential global disasters. Under this background, the western scholars led by German sociologist Ulrich Beck and British sociologist Anthony Giddens, they grasp deeply the important change of the modern human society, recognize acutely the risk truth that the western society is confronting, they try to reflect and criticize the change of human society in risk perspective, put forward ’risk society’ concept, and they summarize the characteristics of the modern human society with risk concept, then put forward creatively the risk society theory. They think human society now is changing from industry society to risk society, we live increasingly in such a society that ’there is no choice but risk’, risk society has already been an inevitable circumstances for human. The western risk society theory is a profound insight、long-sight theory, it is an important thought trend which study the deep change of modern human society in modern western sociology、politics、philosophy research domains, and so on, and it provides a new perspective for people to overlook and reflect the development of human society. The risk society theory represents a new stage of western society theory; it also reflects the deep transition of human society in modern stage. Since 1980s, a series of large incidents such as Chernobyl emanation, and so on, have been continually occurred, which demonstrate the reasonableness and depth of risk society theory, also invoke the wide focus and violent argument all over the world.Since 80’s last century, China has experienced a wide and profound social transformation accompanied by the establishment of market economy, and so on, and this has brought about a violent and deep social transformation stage, however, this transformation has a characteristic of ’condensed’ form, and is very complex. The similar risks once the western society experienced during their transformation form the traditional society to modern society have occurred in China, numerous risks come forth continually, and these bring about a great challenge for our economy and society development in China. During this process, many risks will come forth, and even in a violent, explosive form, such as, economy risk existing; corruption spreading; society stratum differentiation aggravating; the gap of rich and poor expanding; unemployment increasing; situation of public security worsening; social ethics deteriorating, and so on, the economy development and society harmony have been demolished heavily, in this situation, the society is currently located at a high risky stage. At this critical stage, if the measures that solving numerous risks are effective, the risks will be reduced, the society will then come into a harmonious stage; or, more and more risks maybe come forth continually, our society will be in chaos, standstill, even go backwards. Therefore what society to build up and how to construct such a society have become a fundamental issue in China. Fortunately, our Party has recognized fully this problem, and puts forward the great goal of constructing the Socialist harmonious society.As a theory originates from the western Capitalism development, risk society theory has its limitation; it neglects to care for the special risks in the developing counties, so it can’t solve effectively the risks confronted in China. But this theory has the deep reality、risk consciousness acuity、the enthusiasm of exploring the way to risk society, all have deep inspiration and reference value. Now China is experiencing a violent transitional period, not only confronting a lot of global risks, but also facing especially transitional risks, all these risks are very big challenges for us to build up the harmonious society. Considering China is experiencing the great challenges of numerous risks truth, it is urgent that we should study deeply the risk society theory which is put forward by the western scholars, and this can help us grasp the development of the western sociology condition in modern times, and also help us know the deep changes of human society; help us enrich and develop the Marxism society development theory, advance theory innovation, know and analyze correctly the risks before China in practice, and strengthen the risk consciousness and risk opinion, to avoid and solve risks, coming of the harmonious society. The process of building the socialist harmonious society, it also is a process of dealing with risks.The thesis persists in the position、standpoint and ways of Marxism, uses mainly the methods of dialectic analysis、the connection of theory and practice、comparison, and so on, the author tries to make an objective analysis to the risk society from the western society, and gain the useful inspiration from the theory, in order to promote a good development of the harmonious society construction of our country. The western risk society theory can provide deep inspiration and referential experience, it has been complimented bringing a fresh wind for the dull social theory post-the second war in western society, and also made a great influence in social theory、policy studying and among the commons. Although there are many great differences in economy and politic systems, and so on, between our country and the western developed countries, it is an inevitable times theme and necessary choice to borrow the soul of the risk society theory which is originated from the western countries for building up the harmonious society in our country in the background of the increasing global risks. Strengthening studying the risk society theory which makes a particular understanding and a deep viewpoint to the risks in modern days, then analyze the risks confronting us, formulate the corresponding measures, strengthen the social policies, rule and solve the risks effectively, to live through the social transformation stage, and this a important task in modern China.The breakthroughs and innovations of the thesis are mainly as follows: Firstly, I think that the risk society theory is a reflective theme at the basis of the deep change of human society in modern times. I trace the origin of risk means and evolution, from Beck’s and Giddens’ famous books; I analyze their particular opinion on risk, summarize the characteristics of risk and risk society, then I comb the original study and expensive research on risk society made by Beck and other western scholars, build a whole frame of the western risk theory. Secondly, I make an explanation to the western risk theory. The thesis makes a deep analysis to the measures and ways put by them. Then on the basis of Marxism standpoint, I analyze the deep theory value and practice value of risk society theory, and its inextricable limitation. Its theory value and practice are follows: sets up a newly particular risk research perspective; takes up an inheritance to the former critical theory, also does a positive construction; provides us a grand globalization ground to recognize and solve the risk; enforce the people’s risk consciousness and risk opinion. Then make a deeper analysis to the limitation of risk theory, it is west-centered, it can’t explain correctly the cause of risk society, it can’t find the way to solve the risk society. Thirdly, I analyze fully the complex risks our country confronting in modern times. I don’t want to avoid purposely the risks phenomena in front of China, however, I think our country is coming into the period of high happening of risks, and is experiencing the economic、political、cultural and ecological risks; Then I summarize the characteristics the risks in our country; and I try best to find the origin of these risks. Finally, I put forward the new ways to solve the risk phenomena and build the harmonious society. I sum up the inspiration from the western risk society theory. In my opinion, we are facing many risks now, but our country has not come into the risk society stage which is disturbing the western scholars, the society situation is harmonious generally, development and risks coexist, risks and harmony connect together in the situation.The deficiency as follows: Firstly, the books of the western risk theory scholars are numerous, the research perspectives are different, and the great hedge of different language, it is not easy to grasp fully the risk society theory, what I have made is very superficial compared with the profound risk society theory. Secondly, it is not enough to analyze the theory which origins from the western developed capitalism society, it needs the continual amendment. Thirdly, how to understand and solve the risks confronting our country, then build up the harmonious society, it needs further study. Finally, considering the thesis chooses a new perspective, it is hard to solve this problem; the data which I have collected is limited. Because of my swallow thought and eyesight, I can’t grasp the collected information, so there is lots of work need to do to enrich my opinion in the dissertation. The potential direction in the future study career: there are lots of limitations in this dissertation, but it is an important starting of my academic research. I will take this dissertation as further study, make efforts continually in this area, and never give up easily. I believe that if we connect the western risk society theory with the practical and prophetic harmonious society theory and practice put forward by our party, and so, "China can know the wrongs made by the western countries", to avoid the challenge of more risks, and this will expand greatly the new area of Marxism society history theory and society practice theory, provide a good opportunity for socialism China to solve risks, and it will become inevitably a new-times theme.

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