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The Epidemiological Study on Status Quo of Teaching Behaviors of Teachers in the Medical University and the Effect of the Behaviors on Teaching Quality

Author: ZengZhiZuo
Tutor: YuShouYi;ZhouZengHuan
School: First Military Medical University
Course: Epidemiology and Biostatistics,
Keywords: Teaching Behavior The quality of teaching Epidemiological studies Cross-sectional survey Case-control study Unconditioned Logistic regression analysis Influencing factors Risk factors
CLC: G642.4
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2006
Downloads: 804
Quote: 5
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Abstract


1. IntroductionThe teaching quality of higher education institutions is collectively influenced by various factors in all teaching segments, with teachers’ quality and level as one of the most crucial factors. The influence of teachers in higher education institutions on students is exerted through various behavior manners in their teaching activities. The selection of teachers’ teaching behaviors directly determines the success of teaching effect, which makes it the direct and primary factor in influencing teachers’ teaching quality, and also makes it have effect that cannot be underestimated on students’ development. It is of both theoretical and practical significance to the improvement on teachers’ teaching behaviors and the enhancement in their teaching quality to investigate the status quo of teaching behaviors of teachers in higher education institutions, to analyze the features of teaching behaviors of diversified types of teachers, to study the influential orientation and strength of teaching behaviors on teaching quality, and to bring to light the key teaching behavior factors in the greatest need of development and improvement in the course of developing teachers’ teaching quality. This research is undertaken on the practical teachers in a certain key medical university on the basis of a vast amount of literature review, consultation with experts and students, and a preliminary investigation. It takes the study of status quo of teachers’ teaching behaviors and the effect of the behaviors on teaching quality as the breakthrough point to preliminarily explore the practical application of prevalence survey, cause disease and causal inference, and case-control study to the research of educational management, and to preliminarily build an experimental model for the epidemiological study on status quo of teaching behaviors of teachers in higher education institutions and the effect of the behaviors on teaching quality. Many case-control studies are conducted in accordance with two logistic regression models, both of which have factors in teaching behaviors that influence teaching quality and assessment preferences for teaching as the same independent variable, but have outcomes of teachers’ teaching quality and outcomes of assessment preferences for teachers’ teachings as dependent variables respectively. Teachers’ teaching behaviors are analyzed from the multivariate perspective due to the adoption of both one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression and logistic multivariate analysis in case-control study. It conducts comparative study on teaching behaviors of teachers with different levels of teaching quality and different assessment preferences, probes into the critical influential factors in teachers’ teaching behaviors at different development stages of teaching quality, successfully picks out the crucial behavioral factors that influence teaching quality, and conducts quantitative analysis on their influential strength.2. Objectives2.1 To establish a set of scientific, effective and practical assessment indexes system and supervision management mechanism for the timing assessment and supervision on the quality of teachers’ teaching behaviors.2.2 To study the teaching behaviors of teachers in the medical university from both students’ and teachers’ angles, and to scientifically depict status quo of teaching behaviors of teachers in the medical university for the study on distinct behavioral features of teachers who teach excellently, badly, and ordinarily.2.3 To probe into factors in teaching behaviors that influence teachers’ teaching quality, to study the influential validity of factors in teaching behaviors with scientific quantitative analysis, and to explore the crucial teaching behavioral factors in the course of the development of teachers’ teaching quality, which provides teachers and managers with a basis for the improvement plan.2.4 To study the behavioral features of teachers preferred by students only, by experts only, neither by students nor by experts, and by both students and experts, and to analyze the influential factors and improvement direction for developing teachers preferred by students only, by experts only, and neither by students nor by experts into those preferred by both students and experts.2.5 To provide theoretical foundations for the self-reflection of teaching management sections in higher education institutions on teaching management, for the self-reflection of teachers on teaching, and for the decision-making to explore the establishment of a set of practical supervision programme on teaching behaviors of teachers in the medical university.2.6 To explore the building of an epidemic model for the study on teaching behaviors of teachers in the medical university, and to establish a methodological system in order to provide methodological cases and thoughts for managers to effectively and scientifically pick out the most crucial core problem from numerous problems. 3. SubjectsThe subjects of this research are the practical teachers in a certain medical university. In order to eliminate the interference of the confounding factors, such as the changing of teachers, and the frequency of teaching, and to objectively reflect the relation between teachers’ teaching behaviors and their teaching quality, the criteria for the selection of research subjects are as follows:①The teachers who have been steadily teaching college students in recent 3 years (at least more than twice of teaching);②The teachers whose teaching quality has already been assessed by both students and experts.There are altogether 413 teachers who fulfill both of the two criteria according to the statistics on teachers’ teaching and its assessment in recent 3 years.4. Methods4.1 The study on the establishment of the assessment indexes system on the quality of teachers’ teaching behavior and the supervision management mechanism4.1.1 The establishment of the assessment indexes systemBoth student and expert assessment indexes systems on teachers’ teaching quality are established by applying systematic analysis method, literature study method, Delphi method, and AHP method, and the indexes systems are further optimized through actual measurement, statistics analysis and improvement.4.1.2 The establishment of the assessment mechanismA full scale assessment and supervision mechanism for all the teachers and an effective feedback and control mechanism of information on teaching quality are established in line with rules of teaching management and teachers’ teaching reality, and the close combination of assessment of teaching quality and its improvement is promoted.4.2 The practical study on status quo of teachers’ teaching behaviors and the effect of the behaviors on teaching quality4.2.1 The design of the questionnairesThe questionnaires centered on research objectives are designed on the basis of literature review and in line with both the theories and methods in the epidemiological descriptive study and case-control study by consulting experts through seminars and questionnaires. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires are actually measured, and the content and the format of the questionnaires are improved and determined on the basis of a preliminary investigation. Finally, the reliability and validity of the questionnaires are tested and improved through the means of a preliminary test, principal components analysis, and factor analysis.4.2.2 Investigation methodsEach teacher is investigated with the questionnaire on the spot. In order to enhance the quality of replies, the questionnaires without any private questions are answered anonymously, but identity information is indicated at the page number. In order to keep the information of the research subjects secret from anyone except the researcher, the questionnaire and a blank envelop are put into a large envelop with the name of the research subject on it, and the questionnaire is returned inside the sealed blank envelop. With the human resource network of teaching management, an investigation group of 16 people is formed by the directors of every college and teaching and scientific research office under the lead of the teaching affairs office. Questionnaires are distributed one by one to the research subjects by members of the investigation group from the same working unit who have been explained with details and trained twice, and the questionnaires are returned in 3 days. The members of the investigation group also are the consultants on the fill-in of the questionnaires, explaining relevant questions. Furthermore, the ways of contacting the group members, such as their telephone numbers and email addresses, are known to the teachers for the sake of giving immediate explanations.4.2.3 The input and sorting out of dataA data input group is formed by 6 college students in senior grades majoring in computer science, who are familiar with Excel and take part in the work-study program, with the lead of the researcher. The data input staffs are trained for 5 days with simulation drill. The input and the checking of the data are finished within 3 days with the help of the software SPSS 12.0. Data are selected, marked and sorted out in the light of the demand of the research, and a database is created. After the input, two general checking and one sample checking are conducted.4.2.4 Statistical methodsAll the data are input via the software SPSS12.0, and an open database of the study on status quo of teaching behaviors of teachers in the medical university and the effect of the behaviors on teaching quality is created. Statistical analysis and description are conducted on the distribution of teaching quality and teaching behaviors by adopting X~2 test and rank sum test. Case-control study is conducted by adopting both one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression and logistic multivariate analysis.4.2.5 Case-control studyThe outcomes of the assessment of teachers’ teaching quality are measured by the weighted sum of both student grading and expert grading, which enables the exact reflection of teachers’ teaching quality. The outcomes are ranked with percentage, with the first 27% as teaching excellence, the last 27% as teaching badness, and the rest as teaching ordinary. The teachers preferred by the students only are those who get teaching excellence in student assessment but not in expert assessment; the teachers preferred by the experts only are those who get teaching excellence in expert assessment but not in student assessment; the teachers preferred by both the students and the experts are those who get teaching excellence both in student assessment and in expert assessment; the teachers who are preferred neither by the students nor by the experts are those who do not get teaching excellence in both student assessment and expert assessment. Both the one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression and the logistic multivariate analysis are conducted on the behavioral factors that influence teaching quality by adopting the method of epidemiological case-control study. The risk behavioral factors that influence teaching quality are looked for through many case-control studies and the comparative study on behavioral features of diversified types of teachers. Meanwhile, case-control study is conducted on the phenomena of student preference and expert preference in teachers’ teaching assessment so as to reveal the differences in teaching behaviors of teachers with different preferences and the critical factors that influence their development directions.5. Findings5.1 The establishment of a scientific, effective and practical assessment and supervision mechanism on teaching qualityBy consultation with experts and statistical analysis tests, this research establishes a scientific, effective and practical assessment and supervision mechanism on teaching quality with a scientific assessment indexes system, a sound operational mechanism, smooth feedback channels, and effective control measures. It develops with favorable effect in the practice of teaching management, solves the crucial problem of quantitative assessment of teachers’ teaching quality, and also lays the foundation for this research.5.2 The statistical differences in the distribution of teaching quality of teachers with distinct teaching behavioral featuresThis research finds out that statistical differences in the distribution of teaching quality come from the following 8 factors—different ages, different teaching standings, different professional technical positions, different types of student supervisors, heads or secretaries of the teaching groups, different fields of study, different proportions between teaching and scientific research, and different time and energy allotment proportions.This research finds out that statistical differences in the distribution of teaching quality also come from the following 38 factors in teaching behaviors—frequency of on-the-job training, reading of pedagogical books, publication of teaching articles, enthusiasm for teaching, degree of importance that teachers attach to their teaching, career objectives, degree of endeavor for teaching, expectations and demands in teaching, communication with colleagues, communication within teaching groups, degree of inspiration from the university, the attitude towards preparing lessons, design of teaching, renewal and adjustment of teaching contents and patterns, language competence, communication skills, degree of in-class communication with students, encouragement for students’ studiousness, giving credit to and stimulating students, imparting methods and what they have learned, encouragement for students to raise questions, handling with students’ ways of answering questions, student-teacher relationship, focusing attention on students’ study, development of scientific research, innovation in patterns, mastery of teaching theoretical skills, degree of satisfaction at their job and teaching performances, potential to enhance teaching quality, reviewing teaching experience, concerning about features of teaching behaviors and concepts of teaching theories, paying attention to teaching effect, working out and implementing improvement plans, and conducting educational scientific research.5.3 The picking out of crucial factors in teaching behaviors that influence teachers’ teaching qualityThis research reveals that teachers’ teaching quality is collectively affected by numerous teaching behaviors, and the crucial factors in teaching behaviors that influence teaching quality are different for teachers of different types with distinct features of teaching behaviors. In the case-control study on the teachers who teach excellently and badly, 43 influential factors are found in one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression, while 4 risk factors are picked out from logistic multivariate analysis, which are degree of importance that teachers attach to their teaching, degree of endeavor for teaching, expectations and demands in teaching, and degree of focusing attention on students’ study. In the case-control study on the teachers who teach excellently and ordinarily, 35 influential factors are found in one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression, while 6 risk factors are picked out from logistic multivariate analysis, which are reviewing teaching experience, concerning about features of teaching behaviors, paying attention to teaching effect, degree of importance that teachers attach to their teaching, degree of endeavor for teaching, and timing adjustment of teaching patterns. In the case-control study on the teachers who teach badly and ordinarily, 35 influential factors are found in one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression, while 7 risk factors are picked out from logistic multivariate analysis, which are working out teaching improvement plans, expectations and demands in teaching, concerning about features of teaching behaviors, degree of endeavor for teaching, mastery of teaching theoretical skills, degree of importance that teachers attach to their teaching, and their career objectives.5.4 The picking out of the crucial factors in teaching behaviors that influence assessment preferences for teachers’ teachingThis research indicates that the differences in teachers’ teaching behaviors caused by numerous factors are the reasons for assessment preferences for teaching. The most crucial influential factors are distinct for teachers with distinctive behavioral habits who are assessed with different preferences. In the case-control study on teachers preferred by experts only and teachers preferred by both students and experts, 24 relevant factors are found in one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression to have influence on developing teachers preferred by experts only into teachers preferred by both students and experts, while 9 crucial factors are picked out from logistic multivariate analysis, which are concerning about features of teaching behaviors, student-teacher relationship, handling with students’ ways of answering questions, renewal and adjustment of teaching content, paying attention to teaching effect, giving credit to and stimulating students, pressure to study from students, principal channels of sources of teaching theories, degree of specific training for teaching after work. In the case-control study on teachers preferred by students only and teachers preferred by both students and experts, 18 relevant factors are found in one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression to have influence on developing teachers preferred by students only into teachers preferred by both students and experts, while 5 crucial factors are picked out from logistic multivariate analysis, which are innovation in patterns, the importance attached to the design of teaching system, forms and contents of class design, teachers’ career objectives, and concerning about features of teaching behaviors. In the case-control study on teachers neither preferred by students nor by experts and teachers preferred by both students and experts, 41 relevant factors are found in one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression to have influence on developing teachers neither preferred by students nor by experts into teachers preferred by both students and experts, while 7 crucial factors are picked out from logistic multivariate analysis, which are degree of endeavor for teaching, concerning about features of teaching behaviors, encouragement for students’ studiousness, reviewing teaching experience, degree of importance that teachers attach to their teaching, enthusiasm for teaching, and demand for the development level of teaching quality.5.5 The building of logistic regression model for the study on teachers’ teaching behaviorsTwo logistic regression models are built, both of which have factors in teaching behaviors that influence teaching quality and assessment preferences for teaching as the same independent variable, but have outcomes of teachers’ teaching quality and outcomes of assessment preferences for teachers’ teachings as dependent variables respectively. The critical behavioral factors that influence teaching quality are successfully picked out from multivariate analysis on various factors in teaching behaviors that influence teaching quality and assessment preferences for teaching through one-way analysis of unconditional logistic regression and logistic multivariate analysis.5.6 The exploration of the application of prevalence survey, cause disease and causal inference, and case-control study to the research of educational managementIt takes the study on status quo of teachers’ teaching behaviors and the effect of the behaviors on teaching quality as the breakthrough point to preliminarily explore the practical application of prevalence survey, cause disease and causal inference, and case-control study to the research of educational management, and to successfully build an experimental model for the epidemiological study on status quo of teaching behaviors of teachers in higher education institutions and the effect of the behaviors on teaching quality.6. Conclusions6.1 Cross-sectional survey reveals the existence of statistical differences in the distribution of teaching quality of teachers with distinct teaching behavioral features.6.2 Teaching quality is collectively affected by numerous factors in teaching behaviors.6.3 The risk factors in teaching behaviors that play crucial roles in the development of teaching quality of teachers with teaching excellence, teaching badness, and teaching ordinary are different because of different development directions.6.4 The assessment preference for teachers’ teaching is collectively affected by numerous factors in teaching behaviors.6.5 The risk factors in teaching behaviors that influence the improvement of assessment preferences for teachers’ teaching are different because of different development directions. 6.6 This research demonstrates that the two logistic regression models for the study on teachers’ teaching behaviors are worthy of further exploration and popularization in the research of higher education management because of its high identity and good discrimination.6.7 Epidemiological theories and methods are able to be successfully applied to the research of educational management. The exploration of the combination of epidemiology and educational management has promising research and application future, and is of great practical and theoretical significance as well.6.8 The four key strategies to supervise teachers’ teaching behaviors are as follows: to conduct effective school-based trainings, to establish self-reflection mechanism on teachers’ teaching, to convert acceptance theories into practical theories, and to establish scientific motivation mechanism on teachers’ behaviors.

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