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Investigation on Oil Leakage Contamination and Health Risk Assessment of Gas Station

Author: GeJia
Tutor: LiuZhenHong; YangQing
School: Donghua University
Course: Environmental Engineering
Keywords: gas station underground oil tank oil leakage contamination investigation health risk assessment
CLC: X830
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 157
Quote: 0
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Abstract


In1924, the United States Mobil built China’s first gas station in Huangpu District, Shanghai. Eighty-eight years have passed, and now the number of gas stations in China has increased to more than one hundred thousand. The scale can not be mentioned in the same breath; however, the potential harm should not be overlooked. The oil leakage of the gas station is invisible and unnoticeable, but once the signs of leakage are observed, usually serious pollution has been caused. And petroleum pollutants contain a variety of organic compounds which are suspected to be carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic substances. Therefore, the oil leakage problem of gas station has become a major threat to human health. Nowadays, the pollution incidents caused by oil leakage of gas stations have occurred for several times in China; however, the investigation and study on oil leakage contamination of gas stations is still in the initial stage. So in this paper, the investigation on oil leakage contamination and health risk assessment of gas station was carried out, mainly including the following three aspects:Firstly, this study carried out a survey to understand the current situation of Shanghai gas stations and a leakage pollution potential analysis for118gas stations in the key areas of Shanghai based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. According to the analysis results, the gas stations in the key areas were divided into three levels of higher, general and lower in accordance with the pollution potential values. As a result, two gas stations with higher pollution potential values and convenient for study were selected as the typical ones to carry out further contamination investigation and health risk assessment. The pollution potential values of typical gas station I and II were3.60and3.79respectively, which meant higher pollution potential.Secondly, this paper was based on the relevant domestic and foreign literature, standard and specifications to study and carry out the investigation on oil leakage contamination of gas station. The main investigation methods included Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for preliminary site exploration, on-site PID or MIP testing, collection and laboratory analysis of soil and groundwater samples. The investigation results revealed that the two typical gas stations were contaminated by oil leakage to some degree. The pumping island, pipeline area and oil storage tank area were major source of pollution, and the oil leakage risk of the pumping island was larger than the storage tank area. The results also showed that the main pollutants in the soil were proved to be monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); and the groundwater was mainly polluted by benzene series, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH).In addition, this paper was also based on the relevant domestic and foreign literature, standard and specifications to study and develop the VB-based software for health risk assessment of gas station. The health risk assessment mainly included four aspects of hazard identification, toxicity assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. According to the results of the health risk assessment, there was a certain risk to human health in each of the two typical gas stations. The carcinogenic hazardous values of benzene, ethyl benzene and naphthalene in the two typical gas stations all exceeded the acceptable risk level (10-6), which was risky to human health; and the non-carcinogenic hazard quotients of all the concerned contaminants were generally less than1, which was within the acceptable risk level of human health.Through this study, we understood the current situation of Shanghai gas stations, the leakage contamination stuation and health risk level of the two typical gas stations. Hope the method and case study in this paper can provide a reference for further investigation and risk management investigation on oil leakage contamination and health risk assessment of gas station in China in the near future.

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