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The Influence of Combination Application of Organic Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Crop Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

Author: YaoJuanJuan
Tutor: WangHongTing
School: Shanxi University
Course: Plant Nutrition
Keywords: Organic fertilizer Nitrogen fertilizer Cropping system Cropyield Nitrogen fertilizer efficiency
CLC: S147.2
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 150
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Abstract


In this paper, from the perspective of combined application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer, Linfen city was selected as a research area of the major grain production areas of Shanxi Province to explore the effect of combined application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer under the conditions of the two cropping systems (wheat-maize rotation system and spring maize system) and put forward the suitable rate of combined application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer as well as their proportion. Research results will provide a theoretical and practical guidance to local agricultural production. The main results obtained were as follows:1. Under the cropping systems of winter wheat and summer maize rotation, combined application of organic fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on grain yield and biomass in the rotation system. Compared with the CK treatment of without nitrogen application, total yield of winter wheat and summer maize increased by946-2028kg/ha with the ratio of9.2%-21.0%; Biomass increased by1627-3200kg/ha with the ratio of8.1%-16.0%. The treatment4(N120P75K75M600) helped to produce the highest yield and biomass in whole rotation by11674kg/ha and23213kg/ha, respectively. At same time, the highest net income (19364yuan/ha),nitrogen uptake(295.0kg/ha)and nitrogen use efficiency (23.7%) were obtained in the treatment4.2. As far as the single crop was concerned, yield results indicated that four treatments combined application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer had significantly increasing response, compared with the control CK. Wheat yield increased by367-971kg/ha with the ratio of9.6%-25.3%, and biomass increased by970-1822kg/ha with the ratio of11.1%-20.9%; Maize yield increased by458-1057kg/ha with the ratio of7.9%-18.2%, and biomass yield increased by618-1379kg/ha with the ratio of5.5%-12.2%. Yield increase had the trend of increased at first and then gently with the rate of nitrogen application increased. The treatment4(N120P75K75M600) helped produce the highest yield and net income. Wheat yield and net income was4803kg/ha and7543yuan/ha, respectively, and maize yield and net income was6871kg/ha and11821yuan/ha, respectively.3. Combination application of organic fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer had a significant effect on nitrogen uptake and utilization. Compared with the treatment of without fertilizer application or only organic fertilizer application, the treatments of combined application improved wheat nitrogen uptake and utilization. The amount of nitrogen uptake of treatment4was the highest by153.0kg/ha with the highest efficiency of nitrogen use by43.2%. Nitrogen use efficiency of the treatment6(N240P75K75M600) was the lowest by18.5%. The analysis of the nitrate content in the soil profile (0-100cm) indicated that combination application of organic fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer was safe for the environment.4. In spring maize system, combined application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer had significantly increased effect on maize yield and biomass.At the planting density of60000/ha, the treatment of combined application of organic manure and225kg N/ha helped produce the highest yield (12350kg/ha) and biomass (21227kg/ha). At the planting density of90000/ha, the treatment of combined application of organic manure and225kg N/ha also had the higher yield (11953kg/ha) and biomass (20559kg/ha). The yield and biomass at the density of90000/ha was lower than those at the density of60000/ha. As far as net return was concerned, combination application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer (225kg/ha) helped produce higher net return by20744yuan/ha and20013yuan/ha at the density of60000/ha and90000/ha, respectively.5. Reasonable combination of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer was favor of nitrogen uptake in spring maize. At two densities, the combination of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer (225kg/ha) had the higher SPAD (Specialty Products Agricultural Division)value at maize tasselling period, and these showed that combined application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer were favor of nitrogen uptake of spring maize. The amount of nitrogen uptake at the density of60000/ha and90000/ha were239.7kg/ha and224.9kg/ha, respectively. And nitrogen use efficiency of combination of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer (225kg/ha) were22.2%and13.2%at two density, respectively. The analysis of the nitrate content in the soil profile (0-100cm) indicated that combination application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer was safe for the environment.To sum up, combination application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer had good effect on not only crop yield and net return increase, but also improving nitrogen use efficiency under the condition of two cropping systems. Combination application of commercial organic fertilizer (600kg/ha) and nitrogen fertilizer (120kg/ha) had a good effect within the rotation of winter wheat and summer maize. Combination application of organic manure (41.4t/ha) and nitrogen fertilizer (225kg/ha) had a good effect at the cropping system of spring maize. Two combinations from two cropping systems all helped to achieve the multi-objective of high yield, high efficiency and environment-friendly.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Agriculture as the foundation of science > FERTILIZERS > Manure,modulation and Fertilizer Efficiency > Fertilization
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