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A Cross-sectional Study on the Associations between Iodized Salt,Thyroid Function and Thyroid Nodule

Author: ChenZeZuo
Tutor: YuYunXian
School: Zhejiang University
Course: Epidemiology and Biostatistics,
Keywords: thyroid nodule non-iodized salt milk thyroid function anthropometricmeasurements
CLC: R581.3
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 6
Quote: 0
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Objective:1. To explore the prevalence of thyroid nodule in Hangzhou;2. To explore the risk factors of thyroid nodule in Hangzhou;3. To explore the associations between iodized salt and thyroid nodule.4. To explore the associations between anthropometric measurement and thyroid nodule.5. To explore the association between thyroid function and thyroid nodule.Methods:A total of6,793adults and2,410children who underwent thyroid ultrasonography were recruited in this study, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China, from March to October,2010. The socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors of thyroid nodule were collected using questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in water, slat and urine, anthropometric indexes and thyroid morphology were measured. Thyroid function was tested in Xiacheng district and Jiande. Risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression in three models. The associations of iodized salt with thyroid nodule were evaluated using multiple mixed logistic regression models. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between thyroid function, anthropometric measurement and thyroid nodule. Results:1. The prevalence of thyroid nodule was29.0%for all adults. Females (34.7%) had a higher prevalence of thyroid nodule than males (24.1%). The prevalence of thyroid nodule was more common among those living in urban area (36.1%) than in rural area (25.9%). The risk of thyroid nodule increased with age. Compared with males, female gender had a higher risk. Non-iodized salt and light salt appetite also increased the risk of thyroid nodule.2. Adults consuming non-iodized salt had an increased risk of thyroid nodule (OR=1.36,95%CI:1.01-1.83). Similarly, compared with moderate salt appetite, mild salt appetite was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule among all adults (OR=1.19,95%CI:1.03,1.37) and among females (OR=1.23,95%CI:1.03-1.46). Furthermore, those who consumed neither iodized salt nor milk had a higher risk of thyroid nodule (OR=1.72,95%CI:1.21-2.43), as compared with those who consumed both iodized salt and milk. Additionally, an increased risk of thyroid nodule (OR=1.25,95%CI:1.07-1.45) was observed among both pooled samples and females with low urine iodine concentration (UIC).3. After adjusted potential variables, compared with corresponding low groups, an increased risk of thyroid nodule was respectively associated with high height (OR=1.15,95%CI:1.02-1.30), high weight (OR=1.40,95%CI:1.24-1.58), high BMI (OR=1.26,95%CI:1.11-1.42) and high BSA (OR=1.43,95%CI:1.27-1.62) in all adults; however, above associations were stronger in females.4. The T3, FT3, T4and FT4levels in the thyroid nodules group were significantly higher than non-nodules group (all p values<0.001). High level of TGAb (TGAb>400KU/L) was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule significantly (OR=2.86,95%CI:1.49-5.51), compared with those with low level of TGAb. Similar association between TGAb and thyroid nodule was also observed in female population (OR=3.13,95%CI:1.53-6.40). Conclusion:Our findings indicate that low iodine intake may increase the risk of thyroid nodule among a Chinese population. In particular, females were more susceptible to thyroid nodule. Further, a higher frequency of thyroid nodules was associated with high level of TGAb among Chinese adults in coastal areas. Additionally, thyroid nodule risk positively increased with anthropometric measurements among both adults and children, especially in female adults and girls. It implies that individual with high height, obesity and BSA has higher susceptibility for thyroid nodule.

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CLC: > Medicine, health > Internal Medicine > Endocrine diseases and metabolic diseases > Thyroid disease > Goiter
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