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The Relocation of the Great China University in Guizhou

Author: XieXiaoBo
Tutor: LiaoDaWei
School: Donghua University
Course: Modern Chinese History
Keywords: the Great University of China relocation Guizhou Province characteristics ofeducation local factors
CLC: G649.29
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 84
Quote: 0
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The Great University of China, founded as a private university in1924, ranking as one of "the best four private universities in Shanghai", was known as "the east Columbia University". When wars were erupted in1937, the Great University of China located in Shanghai was bogged into whirlpool while trying to save itself from it. Under the principle of securing the survival, the Great University of China combined with Fu Dan University as the united university and moved to the inner land. In the October of1937, the associated university of the Great China University and Fu Dan University moved to Lushan of Jiangxi Province first, in the December of the same year moved the southeast province along with Yangtze River. In the April of1938, the united university split and the Great University of China chose Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province as the site. As "Qiannan Incident" imperiled Guiyang, the university which had run for seven years in Guiyang again moved to Chishui, a northern city in Guizhou Province. After the victory over Japan, the university finally returned to the original site in Shanghai in1946. So the Great University of China had run for more than eight years in Guizhou Province since the independent schooling in Guiyang.This paper focuses on the study of the Great University of China in Guizhou Province, excavating the published historical source and archive to study the moving route of the university in Guizhou Province, analyzing the reasons of the location of the university in Guizhou, distinguishing the issues of school buildings, founds, staff as well as teaching arrangement in Guizhou, the most importantly, researching the influence and interaction between the university and the authorities or the other social parties in Guizhou Province.Firstly, the route and circumstance of moving to the interior are diversified. Together with Fu Dan the First Joint University, the Great University of China stayed in Lushan Mountain for short period. It accounted as the most populous procession, entering Chongqing along with Yangtze River, arriving in Guiyang along Hunan-Guizhou Road. This was the first route of the university moving to Guizhou. Besides, there were other two routes:one was moving along with river and arrived in Hunan and then reached to Guiyang along Hunan-Guizhou Road; another one was moving far from Shanghai through Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Province and reached to Guiyang. So three routes of moving were founded through close analysis. Since the time of associated university in Lushan city, the issue of the shortage of school houses has been founded as a tough problem to handle. When located in Guiyang, military lecture rooms were borrowed for free, working as the main campus and "long term school houses" were built in Huaxi County depending on the donation collected from different classes. When sheltering in Chishui, the university was split into three local middle schools and teachers and students rented houses of local inhabitants for lodging.Secondly, structure of department, teacher strength, recruitment and employment were not clear. Though the deep analysis from the materials in Shanghai and Guizhou, it began to show these overall. What need to be pointed out was that as a private university, the Great China University often clashed with local authorities and the famous education college was disassembled because the regular structure of department was suffered from the education system, arising the thinking and expressing on the principles of survival on private universities among the university. The frequent replacement of teachers, the increase of part-time teacher and the system of supervisor showed the characteristics of private universities with pros and cons. The cutting off of traffic because of wars created the prerequisite for the students in Guizhou Province to apply for this university and be employed in Guizhou Province.Thirdly, from the perspective of history of social life and perspective of environmental history, it was noticeable that the Great China University in Guizhou appeared with characteristics of to be the best spirit and seeking pleasure from hardship. The staff and students in the Great University of China lived for a hard life and the consumption of wars magnified the problems of feeding and heating. Therefore, the university on one hand, increased scholarship to ensure the basic life of students; one the other hand, the university tried to apply for the international aid to ensure the operation of the university. While to the individual, students overcame the barriers depending on part-time jobs. Although the campus was simple and crude, the staff and the students tried to find pleasure from hardship, the good relationship between the teachers and the students allows the diversified campus cultural activities to be held. The harmonious atmosphere guaranteed that the university survived under difficult conditions, culturing the qualified scholars. What’s more, the university started a series of social activities, such as establishment of Daxia singing group, making a great contribution of culture modeling to local society. It should be mentioned that the Great University of China put the goal of fighting against aggression and guarding the nation of times into practice with its unique ways.Guided by dialectical materialism, taking positivism as the orientation, this thesis takes the methodologies of literature research, case study and comparative study, trying to distinguish and present the history of the Great University of China in Guizhou Province, filling the academic vacancy of the study of the relationship between the university and inner province, what’s more concluding the theories of the interaction between the emigrated universities and immigrated cities on this base.

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