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Acculturation of Li Nationality:Characteristics、Influencing Factors and Theoretical Model

Author: WangTing
Tutor: XuGuangXing
School: East China Normal University
Course: Applied Psychology
Keywords: Li Nationality Acculturation Characteristics Theoretical Model Personality Trait Coping Style Social Support Demographics Variables
CLC: G05
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 162
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Abstract


The characteristics and influencing factors of Li nationality’s acculturation is seldom attracted attention by the academic field. This study based on the individual level of Li nationality’s acculturation, according to Berry’s cultural diffusion and psychological adaptation theory, combined with the updated development of the acculturation research and Li’s unique cultural situation. This study puts forward the hypothesis model of Li nationality’s acculturation. Based on the whole conception, qualitative and quantitative research methods were both used in this study to explore the relationship between Li nationality’s acculturation model and social psychological factors. Study investigated the structural characteristics and dynamic development characteristics of Li nationality’s acculturation. After that, we explored the effects of personality traits, coping style and social support and its demographic factors to the acculturation. On the basis of the above study, we formed the theoretical model of Li nationality’s acculturation by the fully discussed and hypothetic verification.The study including three parts:Research One according to the domestic and oversea’s updated research achievements, through the method of in-depth interviews (26subjects), open-ended questionnaire (74subjects) and the questionnaire (the first batch302subjects, the second batch676subjects), compiled the Li nationality acculturation questionnaire (LNAS), Used to measure the Li nationality acculturation models, through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to the questionnaire, its results supported a two-dimension structure of acculturation (the adaptive tendency to Li culture and Han culture). The Li’s acculturation models can be distinguished as four types, they are integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization type; Compared with other nationality’s acculturation models, Li nationality have the obviously assimilation type and existed the marginalization type. The questionnaire has a good reliability, validity, and stable characteristic, more in line with the actual situation of the aspects of the Li’s acculturation, which means it is a ideal measurement tool.Research Two through the method of quantitative research investigated676Li nationality adults from the interaction angle including region, gender and intergenerational differences, explored the relationship between acculturation general characteristics and its influencing factors. Then, we constructed the intermediary effects and direct effect model of personality traits, coping style and social support to the acculturation. The results showed that the Li have a higher level of acculturation, in its acculturation models the assimilation type scored highest, however, integration type’s scores is lower than the assimilation type. The Li’s acculturation is effected by gender, age, district, language proficiency, education level, work status, marital status, and income and other demographic variables; It significantly related personality traits, social support, coping style and acculturation model, and be able to predict the four acculturation types; The study also found that personality traits, coping style and social support have a directly and indirectly effect to acculturation. Each of them act as mediating variables indirectly effect to acculturation, especially, the social support has a study significance. At present, the social support positive impact to Li is higher than personality and coping style, it has a favorable effect to acculturation.Research Three through the method of qualitative research (including case interview, Rorschach inkblot plate test and paintings psychological analysis) revealed the characteristics and influencing factors of Li’s acculturation. Case interview with a thorough investigation to the inner experience of9Li during the acculturation process, as well as the relationship between acculturation model and its related influencing factors among the Li’s daily life. The study based on the grounded theory encoded the data progressively, through generic analysis and scenario analysis summarized the Li’s acculturation dynamic characteristics in theory, the regular characteristics of acculturation effected by personality traits, social support, coping style and others influencing factors. Rorschach inkblot plate test case studies try to bypass the psychological defense to measure the4Li nationality’s psychological reaction and personality characteristics objectively, to explore the acculturation characteristics of uncomfortable people in psychology during the acculturation process. The results showed that the personality traits, coping style and social support and other factors in promoting individual actively adaptation and maintain the physical and mental health have a positive significance. Paintings psychological analysis through21representative paintings psychological analysis, explore the Li’s psychological adaptation characteristics during the acculturation process and personality traits, coping style, social support and other factors expressed by subconscious, which have a deep meaning and effected the acculturation.The qualitative research results showed that the Li’s acculturation has the diversified development characteristics. In general, Li’s acculturation type is mainly assimilation, and it take on a trend from assimilation of single cultural identity to the dual cultural identity. At the same time, it take on a dynamic characteristics such as passive turn to initiative gradually, area and intergenerational imbalance intensified, the adaptation contents shift from behavioral level to the spiritual level. The type of separation and marginalization can be easily leaded to the problem of acculturation. With the change of culture, the Li’s simplicity of personality traits takes on reduction, however, theirs defensive takes on enhanced. The relatively stronger defensive mechanism of psychology can be easily leaded to passive adaptation and inner uncomfortable, extraversion is favorable to Li’s individual integrate into the Han nationality society. The personality traits combined with extraversion and defensive can be easily leaded to unbalance between inner adaptation and external adaptation. The original "enjoy pleasure in good time" and escaping coping style is difficult to adapt to the modern economic tide, and can be easily lead to a new adaptation questions arise. The original social support system such as "God blessed" and "if one side in difficulty, the help will comes from all quarters" are changing, however, the new social support system is not yet fully formed, it also can be easily cause the individual psychological unbalance. This study also revealed that in rural, Li’s serious problems are the disproportionality of young men and young women and education of children. However, in city, Li’s problems are that they fell some invisible discrimination and lack of social support. Characteristics of optimism, carefree and content, have fun, yearning for a good life are beneficial to positive acculturation. By contrast, characteristics of single abstract thinking, unconfident, lack of security, dependence and stereotypes and other psychological adaptability characteristics have a certain relationship with adverse adaptation such as at a loss without target, powerlessness, the pressure is too large, weaken, reaction to outside life circle is narrow or not good at interpersonal. Good social support, problem-solving/coping style for help, early prevention and intervention can effectively mitigate the psychological impact caused by cultural changes, it has a positive effect for them adapt to the environment, maintain their own health. Results confirmed the rationality and applicability of LNAS and the model of intermediary effects of acculturation influencing factors.Finally, according to the research results, combined with literature research and model assumptions, we formed the theory model of Li acculturation. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of acculturation characteristics and influencing factors each other. At the same time, it discussed the feasibility for coping and establishment of an effective social support system. The ultimate goal is servicing for the Li’s psychological adaptation under the new era multicultural context. The model contact with the Li’s actual situation, the study also put forward some countermeasures and suggestions for promoting Li’s acculturation. The results of this study may have a certain theoretical and practical significance for the Chinese government departments related to minority research or policy making, and promote the Li nationality’s acculturation.

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