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The Evolution of Population Structure and Its Impact on Economic and Social Development of Shenzhen from 1990’s

Author: ChenXi
Tutor: ZhuXianPing
School: Jilin University
Course: Population, Resources and Environmental Economics
Keywords: population structure sex structure educational and cultural structure regional structure
CLC: F127
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2010
Downloads: 524
Quote: 1
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Abstract


As to be a Special Economic Zone, the economic of Shenzhen has increased rapidly. It’s grown from a small border town to be an international metropolitan. The GDP has increased from 1.96 billion Yuan in 1979 to 780.654 billion Yuan in 2008. Since the 1990s, the population has increased up to 900 million. Workers from outside came to Shenzhen for better working chance. It caused the rapid promoting of economic development in Shenzhen City, and lead to changes in population structure in Shenzhen. These changes have been impacted on Shenzhen’s economy and society dramatically.With the increasing of population, Shenzhen has been changed on the population age structure, sex structure, educational and cultural structure, industrial structure and regional structure. The age of Shenzhen’s population from 1990’s has been changed slightly. The number of people under 15 years old has been dropped. The number of people at 60 years old and over 60 years old has been increased slightly. People in Shenzhen are mainly young people. The structure of Shenzhen’s population has been changed from the male population less than female to female population less than male. The sex ratio is now closed to the international warning line. People who got high education degrees have increased; especially people whom got college and bachelor degree has a significant increase and people who got primary degree are substantially reduced. The average years of education had improved. Most employees worked in the secondary industry. Now more workers are serviced to tertiary industry. People whom worked in the secondary industry and agriculture are going down. People structure represented imbalance on the development, which Baoan District and Longgang district population have increased significantly. In general, there are five main characteristics of Shenzhen’s people structure: Firstly, household population and non-registered population inversion problem is serious, now this problem has become better than before; Secondly, a proportion of working-age population is higher; thirdly, although the educational level of population has growing up, the education level of whole is still at a low step; fourthly, people employed are concentrated in few industry; fifth, regional migration of population from outside is still increased.The development of Shenzhen’s economic and industrial restructuring has been resulted in the evolution of population structure and characteristics. The rapid economic development caused a large number of non-household population. The economic development model of the three to fill has caused to non-household population growth in Shenzhen till the period of reform and opening-up. Following with the industrial structure adjustment, non-registered population of Shenzhen has going to outflow step by step. The employment policy, timely, timely adjustment of personnel policies and personnel training system, has gathered high-quality personnel and provided a broad development space. In addition, workers have gathered to the third industry at the result of the industrial structure optimization. However, the development of Shenzhen still faced "unsustainable" development bottleneck, such as the land, resources, environment, and population. The future development of Shenzhen will depends on technology and services further. During the middle of 1990s, the Shenzhen economic transformation has promoted local high-tech and brand development industry in Shenzhen. A group of enterprises laid a good foundation to“going out”. Shenzhen now has transformed from an industrial city into a "headquarters economy" city gradually.Changes in the population sector are related to economic and social development of Shenzhen, and it’s also influence on economic and social development. To some extent, Young-type population, particularly school-age population accounts for a large proportion, and the relatively high population education level, have met the demands of Shenzhen Economic Development for labor. However, with the rapid development of economy and industrial restructuring, the negative impact of Shenzhen’s Municipal Population Structure on economic and social development have become increasingly prominent. The status of the overall low quality of the population, have become difficult to meet the needs of high-skilled and high technique employees. The limited land resource couldn’t meet the needs of rapid economic growth and increasing of population of Shenzhen’s development. These caused high prices on house, and the phenomenon has reduced the attractiveness of Shenzhen for talent. The serious lack of facilities, public services and public service capacity still can not fully meet the rapidly growing population demands. It also made pressure on Shenzhen Municipal Urban Management and Environmental Governance. And the existence of a large number of non-registered population even bring more pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to take policy measures to improve the population structure. It showed that a significant increase in children and the elderly population, high-quality talent, and improvement of unbalanced development between non-household and household. These features will impact on economic and social development of Shenzhen. Therefore, actions should be done to deal with the impact of population on economic and social development of Shenzhen. According to the development of Shenzhen, it suggested that: firstly, the scope of housing support should be expanded to speed up construction of affordable housing, establishing a multi-dimensional housing security system, and solving the housing problem of high educated and high skilled people. Using by credit, tax policy which could enhance the conduct of the speculative investment regulation, and support independent demand. It should increase the supply of housing security through the planning system reform and the strengthening of urban renewal. Meanwhile, to fasting the integration process which between whining and outside will promote healthy development estate industry of Shenzhen. Secondly, it should increase the health care, education and public health undertakings, to solve the difficulty of study and medical treatment. Thirdly, it should gradually improve the management system of non-household population administration. Using advanced technological and through regular visit of non-household registration system will enhance the daily monitoring of population and strengthen efforts to combat illegal criminal behavior. It also should to improve the non-household population, employment, medical care, health problems to increase the sense of belonging, which will to promote of these people to be homely and improve the city’s stability.

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