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Examination of XianZhishi in the First Years of the Republic

Author: TanChunLing
Tutor: LiuWei
School: Central China Normal University
Course: Modern Chinese History
Keywords: the examination of Xianzhishi tradition modernity the state authority
CLC: K258
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 143
Quote: 0
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Abstract


At the beginning years of the Republic, the chief executive of county was called Xianzhishi. The composition of this group was extremely mixed. There were not only lots of the Qing Dynasty officials who continued to serve as Xianzhishi, but also many youths who had risen through the new revolution, even some petty officials, villains, soldiers and so on, they all acted as Xianzhishi during the regime. This made the country politics becoming more and more serious than in the late Qing Dynasty. Because some Xianzhishi conflicted with the governor at the same level or the higher level from time to time, the provinces and the central government were all dissatisfied with them.At that time Dudu Fengguozhang developed a system called "The government office, hall, eparchy, county, and county magistrate’s examination interim measures" without authorized. It greatly stimulated the heart of Yuanshikai government’s central authorities. In order to clarify official corruption and strengthen the centralization of power, Yuanshikai government held four examinations of XianZhishi in 1914-1915.The examinations were major events in Yuanshikai’s government. The examination had renewed selection mechanism of the county magistrate from the Qing dynasty. It was an epoch-making significance matter in the history of Chinese official choosing system. The Qing Dynasty selected all civil services through the Imperial Examination, then those who met requirements were granted the state and county magistrates basing on a certain standards. These examinations had changed traditional manners into carry on the specially examination to select Xianzhishi in view of county magistrate’s characteristics. The examinations of Xianzhishi were turning point from the traditional imperial civil service examination to the modern civil official examination, these were the first attempt which modern civil official took an examination. It had provided the system resources for Yuanshikai’s government, the later Nanjing National government and even the People’s Republic of China’s official examination. Yuanshikai’s government had also strengthened management to Xianzhishi groups by using rewards and punishment frequently through the examinations. The community of XianZhishi also reorganized unceasingly and evolved, they pursued promising governs. and they had changed from "govern official of the matter" to "govern official of gradually the official".However, the examination of Xianzhishi had some huge cracks in the system or in the execution. The examination caused many questions such as the conducting time were too hasty, the person who had been selected was so excessively, the official career were exceptionally crowded and so on. The tests had produced so many Xianzhishis which were on the waiting list. There had formed a rushing wind in order to seeking for government position, which caused the government be more corruption, because many provinces had an resistance in assigning qualified Xianzhishi. The population had been recommended and been exempted from taking examination, were higher by far than that qualified population through the test, the recommended had already become the target of public criticism. The government’s original intention, clarifying administrative style and achievement of local officials, had greatly departed from the fact produced.Four examinations were not only a positive and constructive action, but also received the numerous censures. Many system measures of Xianzhishi examinations were the Qing Dynasty traditional practices extension, such as selecting and admitting the county magistrates total number, the tenure of Xianzhishi, the recommended and had been exempted from examinations and so on. It is the essence that Yuanshikai’s goverment had chosen to traditional measures in the natural when the government were in the new system flaw, or in the malfunction, or meeting the situation that the laws had not executed. Finally, tests falling into the short.The examinee, the Xianzhishi who on the waiting list, the press public figures and so on all had participated in the examination in the enormous enthusiasm. They all had high expectation, but all were disappointed repeatedly. At the beginning years of Republic of China, the populace’s democracy thoughts development speed had already surpassed the government’s vicissitude speed and government’s operation ability, this created the social agitation inevitably when progressive and relative stagnant contradictory intensified to a certain extent. The examination of Xianzhishi, reforms radically had become the catalyst which caused the Yuanshikai’s government collapsed finally instead.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of China > Semi-colonial and semi -feudal society ( 1840 to 1949 ) > Old Democratic Revolution period ( 1840 ~ 1919 ) > Early Republic of China (1912 ~ 1919 )
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