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Study on Nutritional Regulation and Environmental Modification Technology and Behavior of Heat-stressed Beef Cattle

Author: SunKaiJia
Tutor: GaoTengYun
School: Henan Agricultural University
Course: Animal Nutrition and Feed Science
Keywords: Heat stress Beef cattle Production performance Physiological indices Biochemical indices Behavior
CLC: S823
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 13
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Abstract


In order to alleviate the degree of heat-stress beef cattle in summer and investigate the differences of physiology and behavior of beef cattle in different environment, this thesis studied the effects of Chromium Nicotinate and Potassium Chloride , sprinkling water and fanning on physiological indices, growth performance and serum biochemical indices of heat-stressed beef cattle from nutritional and environmental regulation standpoint. Then this thesis observed the physiological indices and behavioral difference of Simmental crossbred beef cattle in the different environment. So as to provides some theoretical basis for production of beef cattle in summer and assessment of the degree of heat stress.ExperimentⅠ: Forty crossbred beef cattle with similar body weight and age were divided into control group A (served with control diet), experimental group B (served with control diet +33mg/head·d chromium nicotinate), experimental group C (served with control diet +40 g/head·d potassium chloride), experimental group D(served with control diet+33mg/head·d chromium nicotinate +40 g/head·d potassium chloride) . The environment indices of barn and respiratory rate, rectal temperature of beef cattle were measured at 5:30 am and 14:00 everyday for 67 days (pre-experiment 7days, experiment 60days). Body weight of heat-stressed beef cattle was measured at beginning and end of experimental. Feed intake of heat-stressed beef cattle was measured every five days. Economic profit of each group was calculated in the end of experiment. The results showed that:(1) The respiratory rate of heat-stressed beef cattle was greater for experimental group B (54.67 breaths/min,52.45 breaths/min ) than that of control group(50.30 breaths/min(p<0.05), 45.66 breaths/min(p<0.01))at the measured point 14:00 in first stage and later stage, respectively; but rectal temperature did not differ between experimental group B(38.78°, 38.72°) and control group(38.80°, 38.67°) at the measured point 14:00 in first stage and later stage (p>0.05). Comparing with that of control group the average daily gain, the feed intake and the profit of cattle for group B were improved by 26.85%(p<0.01), 1.46%(p>0.05), 89.32%,respectively;(2) The respiratory rate and rectal temperature of heat-stressed beef cattle for experimental group C (46.50 breaths/min、43.85 breaths/min; 38.80°,38.67°)were lower than that of control group (50.30 breaths/min,45.66 breaths/min; 38.80°,38.67°) (p<0.05) at 14:00 in the first stage and the later stage. The average daily feed intake, the average daily gain and the profit of heat-stressed beef cattle for group C were improved by 1.23% (p>0.05), 25.93%(p<0.05),75.43%, respectively compared to that of control group; (3) The respiratory rate and rectal temperature of heat-stressed beef cattle did not differ between experimental group D and control group(p>0.05),but the average the feed intake, average daily gain and the profit of heat-stressed beef cattle for group D were increased by 3.02% (p>0.05), 18.52%(p>0.05), 45.30%, respectively compared to control group . Conclusion:The average daily gain and the profit of heat-stressed beef cattle were improved by offered 33mg/head·d Chromium Nicotinate or 40g/head·d Potassium Chloride for group B and C on heat-stressed beef cattle, but no influences were found by offered 33mg/head·d Chromium Nicotinate and 40g/head·d Potassium Chloride for group D on the growth performance and physiological indices of heat-stressed beef cattle.ExperimentⅡ: Forty crossbred beef cattle with similar body weight and age were divided into group A (fed with control diet as control), experimental group B (fed with control diet +33mg/head·d Chromium Nicotinate), experimental group C (fed with control diet +40 g/head·d Potassium Chloride), experimental group D(served with control diet +33mg/head·d Chromium Nicotinate +40 g/head·d Potassium Chloride) . The environment indices of barn were measured at 14:00 everyday for 67 days (pre-experiment 7days, experiment 60days).In the test period the blood of each cattle was collected by jugular vein for 3 times (respectively on 0d, 30d, 60d) to measure the concentration of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, GLU, TP, ALB, GLO, Na~+,K~+, Cl~-, Cor, T3 and T4 in serum. The result indicated that: Comparing with control ,no significant differences were found in concentration of ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, Cor, GLU, TP, ALB, GLO,K~+ and Cl~- of group B,C and D(p>0.05). Na~+ concentration of beef cattle was decreased by feeding Chromium Nicotinate. T4 concentration of beef cattle was decreased by feeding Potassium Chloride. T4 concentration of beef cattle was increased by feeding both Chromium Nicotinate and Potassium Chloride.ExperimentⅢ: Thirty crossbred beef cattle with similar body weight and age were divided into control group A(no sprinkling water or fanning ), experimental group B(Interval sprinkling and fanning at everyday 12:00—16:10), experimental group C(only fanning at everyday 12:00—16:10 ). The environment indices of barn and basic physiological indices of beef cattle were measured at fixed time everyday for 47 days(pre-experiment 7days, experiment 40days), feed intake and body weight were regularly measured as well. Economic profit of each group was calculated in the end of experiment. Result:The results showed that: 1) The respiratory rate (at 14:00)of group B and C were extremely significant lower than that of the group A (P <0.01), while the rectal temperature were not significant difference among the three groups(P >0.05), but comparing with group A, the rectal temperature increased range were decreased in group B and C between 14:00 and 5:30; 2) Comparing with group A and C, the average daily feed intake of group B increased 19.55%(P <0.01), 6.67%(P >0.05), respectively; and the average daily feed intake of group C was significantly increased 12.07%(P <0.05)than that of the group A;3) In contrast to group A and C,the average daily gain of group B increased 18.52%(P >0.05), 5.79% (P >0.05), respectively; The average daily gain of group C significantly increased 12.04%(P >0.05) than that of the group A; 4) Compared with group A, the economic profit ( per head per day) of group B and C were increased of by 13.08%, 7.99%, respectively. Conclusion:Alternate sprinkling and fanning and fanning can relieve the effect of heat stress on beef cattle and increase economic profit of beef cattle production in different degrees, and the effect of alternate sprinkling and fanning is more prominent.ExperimentⅣ: Thirty crossbred beef cattle with similar body weight and age were divided into control group A(no sprinkling water or fanning ), experimental group B(Interval sprinkling and fanning at everyday 12:00—16:10), experimental group C(only fanning at everyday 12:00—16:10 ). The environment indices of barn were measured at 14:00 everyday for 67 days (pre-experiment 7days, experiment 60days).In the test period the blood of each cattle was collected by jugular vein for 3 times (respectively on 0d, 30d, 60d) to measure the concentration of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, GLU, TP, ALB, GLO, Na+, K+, Cl-, Cor, T3 and T4 in serum. Conclusions: Comparing with control, no significant differences were found in concentration of ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, K+, Na+, Cl–, T3, TP, ALB, GLO, A/G of group B and C (p>0.05); Cor concentration of group B and C were extremely significant loeer than that of the group A at 20d(P <0.01); GLU and T4 concentration of group B were significant higher than that of the group A at 20d (P <0.05).ExperimentⅤ: Physiological indices and behavior of ten crossbred growing cattle and ten finished cattle were measured and observed for 14days which were divided into 2 periods(summer and autumn). Every period include 7days (2days for behavior observation, 5days for measuring physiological indices. The results showed that:(1) The rectal temperature and respiratory rate of growing cattle in summer were significant higher than that in autumn(P<0.05), and the difference of respiratory rate was extremely significantly between in summer and autumn (P<0.01).(2)During the daytime feeding time of growing cattle in summer was shorter than that in autumn(P<0.01), but the ruminating time and drinking time were longer in summer than that in autumn(P<0.01).During the nighttime the standing time (P<0.05)and drinking time(P<0.01) of growing cattle in summer were longer than that in autumn, but the ruminating time was shorter than that in autumn(P<0.01);The feeding time of finished cattle in summer was shorted than that in autumn(P<0.01), and drinking time was extended by 9.60min in summer during the daytime (P>0.05). During the nighttime the standing time and drinking time of finished cattle in summer were longer than that in autumn(P<0.05), but the lying time of finished cattle in summer was shorter than that in autumn(P<0.05). Conclusion: the physiological indices and behavioral difference of Simmental crossbred beef cattle in the different environment were different and the response of different physiological stage of beef cattle to environment was different on physiological indices and behavior.

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