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Qing Dynasty to the Republic of North China Coal Development :1644 -1937

Author: LiuLongYu
Tutor: ZouYiZuo
School: Fudan University
Course: History of human geography
Keywords: north China colliery distribution modern times industry fuel
CLC: K25
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2006
Downloads: 610
Quote: 7
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From Early Qing dynasty to the republic of China, the exploitation of coal mine in north China went through three phases and came to be a most important area of coal producing. The coal mine exploitation and other correlative questions were discussed in this dissertation.In this dissertation the historical and geographic conditions of coal mine exploitation were firstly reviewed. Its opinion is that there was fine geologic base and centuries-old exploitive history in north China and the traditional exploitive means were continued to the early Qing dynasty. The area of producing coal was recovered in the article. And these areas were the foundation of modern colliery. The collieries of early Qing dynasty supplied the fuel, settled the pauper’s living and accelerated the economic development of north China.The military and civilian corporations established in the Westernization Movement offered chances for the coal mine’s exploitation by machines. Under the advocated of the officials in the Westernization Movement, new-style colliery established in many areas, but the ones in north China succeeded. Their success owed to the best combination of all factors: good resource, advanced technology and responsible personnel. This is the reason that the colliery succeeded. But in the other hand, the collieries in the epoch were few, their output was little, and their effect was little too. Anyway they became the base of the ones in the Republic of China.The collieries in the north China make a large progress before the War of Resistance Against Japan. Not only the output increased rapidly, but also the north China became the largest area of coal production and the distribution of collieries had already formed. Its market had exceeded the north China and came to the Changjiang valley. Just for the difference between the product area and the consume area, the pattern that the coal transported from north to south, from west to east formed. This pattern has been affecting the development of our country. In the period the consume structure of coal had transferred from family fuel to the industry fuel and material.The progress of the collieries in north China profited from the social surroundings and the policies. In every period the article analyzed the policies and thought that the exploitation of the coal in the early Qing dynasty was the result of officials’ discussion, the demand of the economy and the machinery became the force in late Qing dynasty and most officials and country gentlemen and the populaceaccepted the new thing passively. In the Republic of China the policy of revenue and control were the most important factors for the colliery. They have positive and passive function. In some degree, the collieries in north China got over the obstacles and made progress.The collieries in north China influenced other social aspects, such as the industry and its distribution, railway, mining city, the workers in collieries, education, and environment and so on. The dissertation analyzed the influences of the collieries in north China to them.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of China > Semi-colonial and semi -feudal society ( 1840 to 1949 )
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