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Extraction and Pharmacological Evaluation of Functional Compositions as well as Juice Processing from Fruits of Spine Grape (Vitis Davidii Fo(?)x)

Author: WangRenCai
Tutor: XiongXingYao
School: Hunan Agricultural University
Course: Pomology
Keywords: spine grape grape seed oil procyanidins supercritical carbon dioxide extraction grape pigment grape juice solvent extraction
CLC: S663.1
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2006
Downloads: 900
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Abstract


Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foěx.) is one of the fruit crops species, distributeswidely in the western and northern of Hunan province. The grape has favorite flavorand taste. But the fruit is small, contained thick peel and large amount of seed. It issuitable for processing. Now there are few reports about studies on spine grape. Theresearch used Ziqiu (a new cultivar of spine grape) as experiment material, mainlyfocused on extracting of seed oil and procyanidins in spine grape seed by supercriticalcarbon dioxide extraction(SCF-CO2), isolating and purifying of procyanidins, thepharmacological evaluation of functional compositions in the seed oil, extraction andthe physical and chemical properties of natural pigment in spine grape peel, as well asthe processing characteristics and the processing technique of fruit juice. The mainresults are following:1. The result of single factor test showed that the main influence factors ofextracting oil from spine grape seed by SCF-CO2 were granule diameter of grindingseed, extraction pressure, extraction temperature, separation pressure, separationtemperature. The results of orthogonal layout experiment showed that the bestlaboratory technique was 0.53 mm in granule diameter of grinding seed, 30MPa inextraction pressure, 35℃at extraction temperature, 12MPa in separation pressure,55℃at separation temperature. The optimal extraction process in laboratory-scale wasblown up to pilot plant scale successfully and results accorded with laboratory-scale. Itwas proved that the extraction process in laboratory-scale was reliable and stable.Compared with solvent extraction method, the technique of extraction bySCF-CO2 was simple. The seed oil by this method was clarifying, did not change colorwhen it were heated, and had no peculiar smell. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in the seed oil was higher. Its iodine value was higher (134.5gI2·(100g)-1), acid valuewas lower (2.08 KOH mg·g-1) and saponification value was higher (195 mg KOH·g-1).On the other hand the yield of seed oil by solvent extraction method was higher thanthat of SCF-CO2 method, its technique was complex. The seed oil by this method wasfeculent, unstable, had peculiar smell, and there was some solvent and noxiouschemical substances such as arsenic in the oil. So SCF-CO2 extraction was a goodmethod for extracting oil from spine grape seed.cThe average seed weight of spine grape was 0.03g, and the content of seed oilwas 15.6%, which more than the seed of Carbernet Sauvignon (13.4%). The seed oiliodine value of spine grape was higher than Carbernet Sauvignon seed oil, acid valueand unsaponifiables was lower than it. Therefore the seed of spine grape waspreferable raw material for extracting grape seed oil.2. The optimum technique for extracting procyanidins from spine grape seed bysolvent extraction was that it conducted at 60℃for 120min by using 70% ethanol.Under this condition, the extraction yield rate of procyanidins was 51.2%, andpurification degree was 43.8%. The solvent extraction method was complex,time-consuming and purification degree low in despite of higher yield rate. Theresult of single factor test showed that the main influence factors for extractingprocyanidins from spine grape seed by SCF-CO2 were extraction pressure, extractiontemperature, extraction time, the ratio of material to liquid and entrainer. The results oforthogonal layout experiment showed that the best laboratory technique for extractingprocyanidins was 30MPa in extraction pressure, 55℃at extraction temperature,1:0.8 in the ratio of materiel to liquid, and 60% ethanol in entrainer. Under thiscondition, the average extraction yield rate of procyanidins reached to 17.33mg·(100g)-1 and average purification degree reached to 89.7%. By the same extractiontechnique, extraction yield rate and purification degree of Carbernet Sauvignon canreach to 34.20mg·(100g)-1 and 70.1%, respectively. Thus the technique obtained in theexperiment was the best condition for extracting procyanidins of spine grape seed, andsupercritical carbon dioxide extraction method was of developmental potential inextracting of grape seed procyanidins.Flowing phase and flow velocity of flowing phase were the main factors that influence isolation and purification of spine grape seed procyanidins with PHPLC.Perfect isolation and purification conditions were obtained: flowing phase was water,methanol,n-butyl alcohol (86:18:5), and velocity of flow was 50mL·min-1. PHPLCcondition obtained in the test was applied to isolate and purified the grape seedprocyanidins which was prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, andobtained the procyanidins product which purification degree reached to 96.6%.3. The best conditions of pigment extraction from spine grape peel with solventextraction method were the following: solvent was 80% ethanol, the ratio of materialto ethanol was 1:5, extraction temperature was 80℃and the duration was 1.5h. Theyield rate of pigment was 2.2%, color value was 22.77 and the content of spine grapepeel pigment was higher. The extraction method was cheaper and safer because thesolvent was ethanol instead of poisonous solvent. The property analysis of spine grapepeel pigment showed that the color value was high, the pigment was endurable to acidand light, and not likely to metamorphose at normal temperature. The pigment fromspine grape peel was a kind of very important natural pigment and can be applied asadditive in food and cosmetic because of being stable to sucrose and vitamin C.4. Spine grape fruit juice had higher nutrition value, stronger flavor, lowercontent of tannin and acerbity, better color and luster. Especially that the procyanidinscontent of spine grape (22.76mg·mL-1) was much higher than that of Kyoho(2.06mg·mL-1). So the spine grape juice was potential to be functionality juice. Inorder to protect bright rose color, the grape juice must be heated for a short time aftercrushing to destroy the oxidase and prevent enzymatic browning. The best method ofprotecting color was cooling immediately after juice being maintained at 70℃for 5minute. The grape juice should be clarified after crude filtration in order to guaranteethe juice stability. Centrifugation at 6000r·min-1 for 10 minute was the best method.Spine grape juice directions was obtained in the test: sugar 6%, citric acid 0.05%,grape essence 0.01%, amaranth red 0.0001%, grape fumet 25%. Spine grape juiceproduced according to the directions was more receptible than the normal grape juice.The nutriments and functionality components of finished products were analyzed. Theprocyanidins content of finished product reached to 5.71 mg·mL-1, but no procyanidinscan be detected in the control group. So spine grape juice was healthier than the common grape juice.5. Spine grape seed oil by SCF-CO2 extraction was analyzed by Gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The result indicated that theseed oil contained 87% unsaturated fatty acids, with 82.32% linoleic acid in it, which ishigher than other grape seed oil had reported. Squalene was found firstly in the spinegrape seed oil which wasn’t methy lesterize by GC/MS method.Experiment hyperllpernla model was established with rats to observe the changeof biochemistry data of plasma lipid. The results showed that rats’ TC and TG weresignificantly decreased and ratio of HDL/LDL was increased after feeding with spinegrape seed oil. These proved that spine grape seed oil possessed marked therapeutic onexperimental hyperllpernla. The study result on the clinical effect of spine grape seedoil to hyperlipidemia showed that the TC content of treatment group were markedlydecreased and HDL were increased as compared with the control group. Spine grapeseed oil capsule had certain effect for treating hyperlipidemia. The observation of theantioxygen effect in aged people showed that the value of SOD enzyme activity,GSH-PX enzyme activity, T-AOC in patients which took spine grape oil capsule wereincreased evidently. Spine grape oil capsule had stronger antioxidative effect, and itsantioxidativel therapeutic effect was identified.In conclusion, Vitis davidii Foex is not only fit for fresh-eating, but also suit forjuice processing, and extracting functional compositions from its peel and seed. Thestudies can provide reference for improving research, exploiture of spine grape

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