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Study on Physiological and Ecological Mechanism of High Yield and Quality of Waving-canopy Cultural Type in Soybean

Author: MiaoBaoHe
Tutor: YuSongLie;LiXiangDong
School: Shandong Agricultural University
Course: Crop Science
Keywords: High oil soybean Cultural type Waving-canopy Yield and quality Physiological and ecological mechanism
CLC: S565.1
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2007
Downloads: 256
Quote: 5
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Abstract


For a better understanding of yield-increasing and economy-increasing mechanism of high oil soybean with waving-canopy cultural type, in order to study the effect on high oil soybean yield and quality of waving-canopy colony, and offer scientific theoretical references for spreadingand applying. The waving-canopy colony was made up of 4 density colony which were 300000 plants per hectare,240000 plants per hectare,180000 plants per hectare and 120000 plants per hectare, respectively.And these density colony were arranged orderly and repeately from north to south, every density colony area had 5 transmeridional rows.High oil summer soybean variety Ludou 9 was used as experimental materials,the bases of biology, physiology and ecology of high yield and quality of waving-canopy cultural type, the effects on colony structure,micro-ecological environment, photosynthetic traits, yield and its components of Ludou9, the contents of protein, oil and fatty acid of high oil soybean seeds, the active oxygen and membrane lipid metabolism peroxidation of Ludou9 leaves, were all studied in field experiments and indoor analyses during 2005-2006; and the correlation analyses between the yield and its components, between the fatty acid and its components of the waving-canopy density colony, were all studied, too. The main results were as follows.1. Effect on colony structure of waving-canopy cultural type in soybeanColony structure of crop could be meliorated by effective cultural type. Waving-canopy colony was made up of 4 density colony which were 300000 plants per hectare,240000 plants per hectare,180000 plants per hectare and 120000 plants per hectare, respectively.And its average density was 210000 plants per hectare,while CK was 180000 plants per hectare,it had a trait which could increase the density of colony, compared with CK, the density increased 30000 plants per hectare. The plant height and stem node decreased averagely 1.27cm and 0.28,while branch increased averagely 1.12, from branching to ripening stage, respectively. 2. Effect on micro-ecological environment of waving-canopy cultural type in soybean The micro-ecological environment and micro-climate of soybean field could be meliorated by waving-canopy. From branching to filling stage, compared with CK, the PAR, CO2 and humidity of waving-canopy colony increased averagely by 5.06%, 2.45% and 4.47% respectively. The temperature of waving-canopy colony increased 1.86℃, at low temperature growth stage, but decreased 0.17℃, at high temperature growth stage.The changes of PAR, CO2, temperature and humidity of the micro-ecological environment were favourable to the yield formation and the quality improvement of high oil soybean.3 Effect on physiological traits of waving-canopy cultural type in soybean3.1 Effect on root absorbable phgsiological traits of waving-canopy cultural type in soybeanThe effective nodules per plant and the ratio of root to shoot were main factors of soybean root activity. The effective nodules per plant and the ratio of root to shoot of waving-canopy colony from branching to ripening increased averagely by 21.74% and 0.51%, compared with CK, and the former increased by 7.45%, 47.03% and 0.31% at stages of flowering, podding and filling, respectively.And all these differences were all significant at 0.01 level, but the later was not.3.2 Effect on main photosynthetic traits of waving-canopy cultural type in soybeanThe essence of waving-canopy cultural type is to increase photosynthesis rate by regulating density. From branching to filling stage, compared with CK, the specific leaf weight, the leaf area per plant, the LAI, the content of chlorophyll, the Chla/Chlb, the rate of sunlight permeation and the photosynthesis rate of waving-canopy colony increased averagely by 1.85%, 8.88%, 17.82%, 1.99%, 26.68%, 1.57% and 4.04%, respectively. The WUE of waving-canopy colony decreased averagely by 1.32%, while increased by 4.78%, 0.08% and 2.42% at the stages of flowering, podding and filling, which the crop grew fastly and needed water mostly at these stages, these differences were all significant at 0.05 level. The average biological yields of waving-canopy colony were higher than CK, increased averagely 186.14kg/666.7m2, and by 22.58%, all differences of them were significant at 0.01 level, especially at flilling stage, increased mostly by 28.09%, and the biological yield of flilling stage>podding stage>flowering stage>ripening stage>branching stage.4 Effect on yield and its components of waving-canopy cultural type in soybean The results showed that waving-canopy colony, compared with CK, on the condition of increasing 30000 plants per hectare, seeds per plant and seeds yield per plant just decreased 2.1 seeds and 0.51g, decreased by 3.30%,4.25% and 0.80%,respectively, all the differences were not significant, while the yield increased 253.65kg/hm2,increased by 11.76%, and the difference was significant at 0.01 level5. Effect on high oil soybean seeds quality and its components of waving-canopy cultural typeThe waving-canopy colony increased the oil content of seeds by 1.52%, the content of linoleic acid by 1.6%, decreased the content of linolenic acid and stearic acid by 0.14% and 7.20%, respectively. The waving-canopy colony could meliorate the structure of the oil fatty acid, increased nutritive value of the seeds.The density of waving-canopy colony was correlated negatively with the oil and the plamitic acid(r=-1.00**and -0.90**). On the contrary, the oil was correlated positively with the linoleic acid (r=0.79), and was correlated negatively with stearic acid(r=-0.55), while the oleic acid were all correlated negatively with the linoleic acid and the linolenic acid(r=-0.74 and-0.50), and the linoleic acid was significantly and negatively correlated with the linolenic acid(r=-0.95*).6 Effect on C、N metabolism in soybean leaf of waving-canopy cultural type6.1 Effect on C metabolism in soybean leaf of waving-canopy cultural typeFrom branching to ripening stage, compared with CK, the average content of soluble sugar, the average activity of SPS and SS of waving-canopy colony increased by 7.18%, 6.67% and 21.82%, respectively. In the course of metabolism of C, compared with SS, the SPS was mainly synzyme in C metabolism of soybean.6.2. Effect on N metabolism in soybean leaf of waving-canopy cultural typeFrom branching to ripening stage, compared with CK, the average content of soluble protein, the average activity of NR and GS of waving-canopy colony increased 0.034%, 7.91% and 10.05%, respectively. In the course of metabolism of N, compared with NR, the GS was mainly metabolic enzyme in N metabolism of soybean before filling stage, and NR was mainly metabolic enzyme in N metabolism of soybean after filling stage. 6.3 Effect on the difference of C and N metabolisms in soybean leaf of waving-canopy cultural typeThe content of soluble sugar and soluble protein of soybean leaf were the productions of C and N metabolisms, which standed for the metabolic ability of them.The results showed that waving-canopy colony, compared with CK, the content of soluble sugar (7.18%)increased much more than the content of soluble protein(0.034%),and with the soybean growing,the former rised,while the later lowered.The metabolism ability of C and N were raised by waving-canopy cultural type, but the ability of C was higher than that of N.7. Effect on active oxygen and membrane lipid metabolism peroxidation in soybean leaf of waving-canopy cultural typeThe results showed that the waving-canopy colony, compared with CK, the average activities of peroxidase (POD) increased by 20.13%, mostly increased by 46.53% at podding stage, and the difference was significant at 0.01 level. POD was the key protective enzyme in soybean leaf active oxygen metabolism. The average activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased by 2.28% and 0.48%, respectively. While malondialdehyde (MDA) content declined, the ability to eliminate active oxygen increased,and the leaf senescence got slowly. The changes of POD, SOD and CAT activity had the same trends, the peak of SOD activity appeared earlier than that of CAT and POD, the POD appeared latestly, that is to say these 3 enzymes had different effects at different growth stages.8. Effect on density colonyⅢof waving-canopy colony of waving-canopy cultural type in soybeanCompared with CK, the density colonyⅢof waving-canopy colony had the same density which was180000 plants per hectare, the yield increased 359.10kg/hm2, and by 16.65%, and the difference was significant at 0.01 level. All the contents of oil increased by 1.92%, the content of palmitic acid and linoleic acid increased by 1.93% and 2.17%, and the content of stearic acid decreased by 25.00%, respectively. And all the differences were significant at 0.05 level. The traits of biology, physiology, ecology, C, N metabolisms and resistant senescence of the density colonyⅢof waving-canopy colony were all better than CK.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Crop > Economic crops > Oil crops > Soybean
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