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Study on Visual Tracking Algorithm and Application on Motion Analysis of Biological Objects

Author: WuXiangPing
Tutor: ZhengZuoXiang
School: Zhejiang University
Course: Biomedical Engineering
Keywords: Visual Tracking GLUT4 Fluorescence correction Kalman filter Blood flow velocity Flow chamber Human Motion Analysis Kalman-Particle filter Block
CLC: R318
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2007
Downloads: 406
Quote: 2
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Various motion models are presented in biological processes. Tracking thesedynamic processes allows revealing some physiological mechanisms, measuring somespecific physiological parameters and quantitatively analyzing some physicalfunctions. This dissertation utilizes visual tracking technologies to explore somebiological processes at different scales.1, To explore the membrane transportation mechanisms of Glucose Transporter 4(GLUT4) granules in adipocytes, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy(TIRFM) was used to observe the trafficking process in real-time. Athree-dimensional single particle tracking algorithm based on Kalman filter waspresented to analyze the image stack containing the dynamic process. Firstly, afluorescence correction procedure was processed to deal with the intensiy decline ofgranlules because of fluorescence quenching over time. Mobile granules were thensegmented by an adaptive background subtraction method. Kalman filter wasintroduced to estimate the locations of the granules in a subsequent frame. Combinedwith the unique features of TIRFM, the z-position was indirectly inferred from theintensity changes of the granules. The experimental results show that the algorithmhas achieved robust tracking of the granules in three dimensions. The fluorescencecorrection procedure has well compensated the decreased intensity due tofluorescence quenching but not spatial displacements in the Z direction that ensure thevalidity of the calculation of Z positions and the stability of the backgroundsubtraction procedure. Additionally, the Kalman filter has provided a locationestimation in the subsequent frame that can greatly decrease the seeking areas andhence the computational assumption, the noise and the number of false trackingobjects.2, To measure the blood velocity in micro-vessels of rats, Autologous red bloodcells (RBC) labeled with fluorescence were injected into the micro-vessels and theflowing process of these RBC was observed in a biological fluorescent microscope. Evrey frame of a captured image stack was separated into odd and even field imagesto calculate the blood velocity. To validate the method, the flow velocity offluorescent globules in a flow chamber was measured under the same system. Finally,the method was applied in the research of microcirculatory disturbance in rats. Theexperimental results demonstrate that the error between the ground true values and themeasured values is below 7% and there are no obvious differences (P>0.05). Theblood velocities measured under microcirculatory disturbance is well coincide withthe physiological states that can indirectly prove the effectiveness of the method.3, To establish a means of quantitatively assessing recovery progress during strokerehabilitation, the movments of the upper limbs of human beings were observedthrough video system. A new color-based Kalman-Particle (KP) filter was proposed toanalyze the motion process. Different from conventional Particle filter, a local linearoptimizer, Kalman filter, was integrated into sampling stage to get a better importancedensity. Additionally, an independent measurement method, color clustering algorithm,was presented to get the observation value for Kalman filter. Results of this colorclustering process were re-used in handling occlusion problems. To solve theocclusion problem, a mechanism of occlusion handling was introduced. Comparedwith Kalman filter, the results show that the KP filter can better handling thebackground disturbance because of its ability of handling non-linear and multi-modaltracking process. And compared with the conventional Particle filters, the resultsdemonstrate that the KP filter has declined the impacts of degeneracy problem andreduced the number of samples attribute to the good importance density steering thesamples towards a high-likelihood region. Furthermore, the tracking algorithm hasshown the good ability of handling the long-term complete occlusion case.In short, tracking the biological process requires not only a reasonable design ofbiological experiments but also an effective tracking algorithm. Based on these twopoints, the author has done some beneficial and explorative researches on these threetracking cases and drawn the following innovative points: a) a robust fluorescencecorrection method and a new 3D Kalman-filter-based tracking algorithm are proposedto track the transportation process of GLUT4. b) A method based on sequential image analysis is presented to measure the blood flow velocity in micro-vessels of rats and aflow chamber system is used to validate the measuring method, c) A new color-basedKalman-Particle filter algorithm is offered to analyze the movements of the upplerlimbs of human beings.

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