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Power for the model of depression in rat behavior and brain cell structure impact

Author: JiaoShuang
Tutor: TuZuo
School: Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Course: Acupuncture and Massage
Keywords: Depression Morris water maze MTR electronic acupuncture electron microscopes
CLC: R245.97
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 328
Quote: 0
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Abstract


ObjectiveWith the development of modern society, the spectrum of diseases has been changing. And the great damages to human health caused by depression become increasingly evident. With further studies for pathological mechanism of depression, scholars have put forward Monoamine Neurotransmitter Theory, the Hypothalamus - Pituitary - Adrenal Axis Theory, Neural Plasticity Theory and Signal Transduction Pathway Hypothesis. According to the 2001 WHO report, depression, as a result of the global disease, causes the fourth total disease burden, and it is estimated that it will rise to the second place by 2020. Now China has about 30 million depression patients, which led to 62.2 billion Yuan economic burden. Therefore, finding effective treatment methods and clarifying their mechanism are urgent and arduous tasks to medical workers. Acupuncture, one of the major parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, can alleviate the symptoms of depression patients. Mechanisms of its effect, however, remain unclear. This research focuses on observing the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on changes of behavior and cognitive function in depression model rats, furthermore, exploring some possible mechanisms by investigating the influence of EA on MRI, hippocampal morphology and its ultra structure.Method48 SD male rats were divided into common group, model group, EA group and fluoxetine group. Then, they were subjected to successive 21 days of seven different ways of chronic stress,while took EA and fluoxetine as treatment methods. Use body weight, open-field test, Morris Water Maze and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the curative effect of the different two methods. And then take HE staining image analysis and Electron Microscope image analysis to observe the morphostructure and ultra structure of the hippocampus.Result1 body weight:In the first two times, the body weight of rats in each group did not show differences. In the third time, the common group rats were heavier than those of the model and the fluoxetine group (P < 0.01), also the EA group (P < 0.05). In the fourth time, the common group rats were heavier than those of the other three groups (P < 0.01). In the fifth time, the common group rats were heavier than those of the other three groups (P < 0.01), while the EA group rats were heavier than those of the model group rats (P < 0.05). In the sixth time, the common group were heavier than those of the other three groups (P < 0.01), while the EA group rats were heavier than those of the model group and the fluoxetine group (P < 0.05).2 open-field test:2.1 Horizontal movementIn the second time, compared to the common group, the horizontal movement of the model group and the fluoxetine group declined, which showed a very significant decrease (P < 0.01), while the EA group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). In the third time, the model group and the fluoxetine group showed a very significant decrease (P < 0.01).2.2 Vertical movementThere wasn’t significant difference between the groups.3 place navigation test of Morris water maze3.1 LatencyIn the second time, the latency of the model group was longer than the other three groups (P < 0.01). In the third time,the latency of the common group was shorter than the other three groups (P < 0.01); While compared to the model group, the latency of the EA group and the fluoxetine group was significantly shorter (P < 0.01).3.2 DistanceIn the second time, the distance of the model group was longer than the other three groups (P < 0.01). In the third time,the distance of the common group was shorter than the other three groups (P < 0.01); While compared to the model group, the distance of the EA group and the fluoxetine group was significantly shorter (P < 0.01).3.3 SpeedThere was no significant difference showed in the speed between the four groups. 4 MRI4.1 Volume of the whole brain and the hippocampusThere is no significant difference in volume of the whole brain between the four groups. The hippocampus of the model group rats was smaller than those of the other three groups (P < 0.05).4.2 MTR of the whole brainThere is no significant difference between the four groups in the Peak Height and the Peak Displacement. Compared to the model group, the average MTR of the common group and the EA group are lower(p<0.05).4.3 MTR of the hippocampusThere is no significant difference between the four groups.5 Image analysis of HE staining Morphological changes of rat hippocampal neurons induced by chronic stress were observed by light microscopes. And the changes observed were mainly the following: the neurons were loosely arrayed and some were in disarray. And the EA group and the fluoxetine group are better than the model group. Using the Image-pro plus5.0 to analyze the image:5.1 hippocampal CA1 regionThe Positive Cell Area and the Integral Optical Density Value of the hippocampal CA1 region of the common group is higher than the other three groups (P < 0.05). There’re no significant differences in the other three groups.5.2 hippocampal CA3 regionThe Positive Cell Area and the Integral Optical Density Value of the hippocampal CA1 region of the common group is higher than the model group (P < 0.01). The value of the EA group is higher than the model group (P < 0.05). The value of the common group is higher than the fluoxetine group (P < 0.05)6 Image analysis by electron microscopesMorphological changes of hippocampal neurons induced by chronic stress were observed by electron microscopes. Some neurons were atrophied; "dents" were found in some nuclei; chromatin was clustered; and there were some vacuoles in the mitochondria. And the EA group and the fluoxetine group are better than the model group.Conclusion1 The unexpected mild chronic stress with solitary custody model is a proper model to simulate the depression situation in behavior and pathological features. But at this extent of stress during this period, some indexes of the whole brain volume and the MTR didn’t show significant difference with the common group, which suggest that this stress during this period can’t cause the extensive structural and morphological changes.2 EA and fluoxetine can improve the behavior and cognitive function of the model rats and alleviate the damages caused by the stress. EA is more effective than the fluoxetine in improving the body weight and the activities, while the fluoxetine is more effective in improving the cognitive function.3 The whole brain MTR value of the fluoxetine group is higher than the other three groups; while the whole brain MTR value of the EA group didn’t show significant difference with the common and the model group. This result may suggest that the fluoxetine has more influence on the white matter of the brain than the EA. And the mechanism of the EA and fluexetine may be different.4 Hippocampal HE image analysis shows that chronic stress may do damages to the hippocampal neurons of the CA1 and CA3 region. EA and fluoxetine can alleviate the damages to some extent, especially to the CA3 region. EA group showed more improvement than the fluoxetine group.5 The electrical microscopes image analysis shows that the torphological changes of rat hippocampal CA3 region neurons induced by chronic stress. EA and fluoxetine can alleviate the damages.

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CLC: > Medicine, health > Chinese Medicine > Chinese medicine clinic > Acupuncture, acupuncture therapy > Acupoint therapy ( meridian therapy) > Of acupoints current therapy
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