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On the Individual Principle of Human Existing Activities

Author: XueJunQing
Tutor: AiFuCheng
School: Jilin University
Course: The philosophy of Marxism
Keywords: practice Existing Activities Individual principle the Way to Realize the Value of Marxism
CLC: B03
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 377
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Abstract


First the Marx’s view of practice has been combed in the paper. It pointed out that it was one-sided that we pondered the practice view of Marx from the ontology alone or from the methodology of the historical materialism. Because of the need of criticism, the“practice”of Marx’s philosophy presented three linguistic environments: the universal practice in the ontology’s linguistic environment, the concrete practice in the methodology’s linguistic environment, and the transcendent practice of personality in the linguistic environment of existentialism. The three linguistic environments are not compound, but a kind of progressive relation of“the variation”, and it stops over finally to the analysis to proletarian survival situation and the guidance to the ideal personality. Fundamentally says, the practice views in“the ontology’s linguistic environment”and“the methodology linguistic environment”of Marx philosophy limit in the epistemology. Regardless of“looking from the practice viewpoint”or“looking the practice”,reveals the foundational significance of production practice in the relation of both and provides the truth about the person, the nature, the society ,the history and so on. The epistemology establishing above universality belongs to the theoretical rationality. In Marx’s philosophy, the practice in the ontology’s linguistic environment and the practice in the methodology’s linguistic environment settle finally on the practice of existentialism .But our present research situation is restricting the understanding of it. It makes the concept look explicit obviously, but deficient of rational reflections in fact. Therefore, the linguistic environment of existentialism opens a location for us where we carries on the research and“unearths”.The unearthing points a external goal providing the ontological foundation for the way of Marxism’s value.The practice in the linguistic environment of existentialism is also“the existing activities”. The process that we“peel”the existing activities from the practice view is also the process from the identical principle of the knowledge to the individual principle of the existing activities. This is one kind of radical shift of angle of view. It has opened an individual sight. The model of the existentialism establishing above the individual principle is more thorough than the model of the epistemology. The individuality is only the“way”and any explanation from the epistemology is inappropriate. If someone thinks it is one-sided emphasis on individual and it has neglected the sociality and the historicity of the individual. I think it’s a kind of simplified understanding. We cannot equate the individual principle and the individual like a“atom”who owns the absolute free in the idea. On the contrary, the existing activities does not repel the universality (including sociality).It’s how the“Dasein”transcends the condition of“the ordinary people”and strengthens the independency in the public life and the social group life. This kind of existing activities is named“concrete universal”by Gadamer. We get the mechanism of reflection in the sight by compraring the Heidegger’s thoughts and the practice viewpoint in the Chinese traditional philosophy. It manifests as a dialectical thinking process like this:(a)Revealing the abstract theory manner caused by the own development of historical culture, as well as the utilitarianism principle behind it. Heidegger has mainly criticized“knowledge rising and thought declining”and the thinking mode of the science occupying the significance space of human being. There is a eternal proposition in Chinese traditional thoughts. It is :How we eliminating the“false”and keeping the“true”during the“becoming the human”in order to transforming“the general knowledge”to“the true knowledge”and transforming“the knowledge of the what one sees and hears”to“the knowledge of the morality moral character”. Says from the constructing the knowledge of philosophy angle, We are seeking the ontological root of the culture (civilization). Says from the philosophical function or training angle, we are thinking how we can cause the culture to set up above the spontaneous combustibility of human and remove the false thing.(b)“returning”to the natural manner that the primary significance is growing there. The premise of the civilization is keeping the distance with the natural. but we can“returns”to nature and maintain the harmony with the natural state where the culture comes. Now many people emphasize the return to“the life world”and the thick consciousness of“Restoring the old”. I think all of above may be integrated to this kind of reconsideration mechanism as a positive understanding. I prove this kind of return in the paper from“the returning to one’s native village”of the academic culture (philosophy),the existence and“Dasein”. (c) Directing the existent resolution in the reconsideration manner. The reflection manner of the existentialism is actually also the practice manner because the awareness and reflection to the abstract theory aim logically at its opposite ----the practice manner. If we question further what the existent resolution and the practice aim at? Certainly it aims at the ideal personality which the thought culture guides. In this aspect, although Heidegger’s thought also contain the profound historical consciousness, but compared with Marx’s thought and the Chinese traditional thought, his existent resolution appears very empty, cannot withstand deliberates because of political stand being lacking.In the western philosophy the so-called modern times’ initiation on basic laid in“the human”discovered. Henceforth, the philosophy centers on“person’s phenomenology movement”. Regardless of being in the epistemology significance or in the epistemology significance, the individual principle once became the premise of this movement. Therefore the paper promulgated the historical inevitability of the individual principle to moving toward the existentialism by reviewing the history of“the movement”and tried to discuss the factors that constitute the individual principle of existing activities by unifying the fundamental breakthrough of Marx philosophy.First the paper revealed the violent individual of“subjective idealism”of modern times by studying the way of Descartes,Kant and Husserl to seek the evident knowledge .I think the reason of the individual of the non-historical consciousness and its difficult position mainly laid in the two levels of thoughts, that is , it fell into the way of universal production of ontology from the way of individual direct-viewing of the epistemology. Second, in Hegel’s philosophy’s scope the paper thought Hegel has surmounted Kant and Husserl to a certain extent as a result of historical and the dialectical dimension involved on the question of individual. Thus causes the individual question to present in a new altitude. But Hegel’s philosophy has subverted the individual finally by the historical integrity, thus fell into“the tyranny of bulking property”. Taking the Marx’s philosophy, the Heidegger’s thought and the Chinese traditional philosophy as the example, the paper proved the function of the finiteness, the other people and the emotion experience in arousing the existing activities of individual under the background of the existential turn of contemporary philosophy. Our discussion has abandoned temporarily the difference in the value guidance, in nature advanced and backward division, but carries out the study on“the existent mechanism”.What the two front chapters based in is the history of thinking. we expected that we can catch the general factor relating to the individuals of existing activities through“reappearing”the Marx’s philosophy, the Chinese traditional philosophy and the Western philosophy .so, we may call them“the return to original state”. What the third chapter based in is the reality. we expected that we can grasp the individuality of“the way of Marxism value which was realized through catching the general character. Therefore we may call it“the construction”. Personality is built on the basis of Generality. So we believe that“the individual principle of human existing activities”is the ontological foundation of“the way to realize the value of Marxism”. If we say that“the free and all-round development of human”is the realization of“the full personality”of human,what the individuality of Marxism emphasized is the belonging of value of“the partial personality”. The latter is an accumulative process. Specifically, the individual principle of Marxism is in three parts: the difference, the order and the tolerance.Further, according to the several links of the existentialism’s reflection, the paper makes some discussions about the intrinsic mechanism of the way to realize the value of Marxism. It shows the dialectical relations of the three levels: 1. The practical“level”of naturalism. Because of the fortuitousness and instability of naturalism ,it must have a definite and unification“life prospect”to give the guidance in the Marx philosophy’s political practice. The most outer boundary of the“life prospect”is the world—history’s perspective. The essence and the core of the“life prospect”is the outlook on life and the values. Because it will only be a kind of knowledgeable existence if the“world prospect”dosen’t relate with person’s life and the existing activities. However, even if the“world prospect”relates with person’s existing activities and forms one kind of regulated value guidance system, it will also lost the root of individual survival if this kind“life prospect”is far away from simple life prospect of human. Therefore surmounting simple life prospect should be rooted in the kind of prospect obtaining the survival reconsideration at first. All of above are not in the significance of the epistemology.2.The practical“level”of the abstract manner. Speaking of the Marxism, the practical“level”of the abstract manner mainly displays in two fields: the field of academic research and the field of public life. Speaking of the field of academic research, the research looked rich and thorough, however, the path is getting more and more narrow in recent years. The abstract manner in public life has its special manifestations. In this aspect, Heidegger’s analysis is enlightening .3. The practical“level”in reconsideration. The paper carrys the analysis from“how to study”,“how to be a man”and“how to politic”.Since the value realization of Marxism should follow the individual principle, the theoretical study of Marxism should show the principle in order not to lagging behind the reality the reality. The final part of the paper analyse the issue. The purpose of revealing the individual principle of Marxism in the existentialism is not integrating Marxist philosophy to the explanation frame of the existentialism and also not filling the human“vacant place”of historical materialism with the existentialism. It because the method can better explain the contemporary significance of the transformation of Marxism. And further the paper thinks philosophy’s intervening the life in the way of question today mainly shows two aspects: The first way is leading the system civilization of Marxism by involving the public life. The second way is leading the ideal personality by involving the personal life. And we should own this horizons: it should direct the individual existence through the political philosophy, and should direct the training of the public life.The purpose of establishing the individual principle of the Marx’s philosophy in the existentialism is to oppose all kind of system construction which carries under the Marx’s theory, and to direct us to raise the achievement ideal personality in the positive social practice, such as communist consciousness, ideal, boundary promotion process. Because Marx’s philosophy is self-sufficient in logic in a closed truth system, the traditional Chinese philosophy and the contemporary western philosophy are forever impossible to enter its field. Only on the base of the individual of existentialism, the three fields can realize the real communication. Only by doing so ,the fundamental point of the value of Marxism will be retained and the reflective forces of the traditional Chinese Philosophy and the Contemporary Western Philosophy will be aroused.

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