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The Study on the Development Modes of the Nujiang Valley Based on the Balance between Development Rights and Sustainability

Author: CaiDingKun
Tutor: LiuChengYu
School: Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
Course: Population, Resources and Environmental Economics
Keywords: development rights Economic Equity Environmental Equity Sustainability the Nujiang Valley Developmental Mode
CLC: TV213
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 300
Quote: 0
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Abstract


The eternal pursuit of human development, being a systematic project, must be coordinated with economic, social and natural laws. The right to survival and development are fundamental human rights, which also belong to people from the Nujiang Valley. According to the resource environmental bearing capacity, existing development density, development potential and other comprehensive factors, the National Spatial is divided into four functional regions, namely, regions for optimized development, regions for key development, regions for restricted development and prohibited development, as stated in "National economic and social development of the eleventh five-year plan outline"(2006-2010). The four functional regions, which follow the economic strategy and the regional differentiation environmental policy, are respectively arranged different dominant industry and development mode. Since the NuJiang State converted the measure cultivating land into forests in2000, and the government of Yunnan Province declared Three Parallel Rivers as the world’s natural and cultural heritage in2003,58.3%of the Nujiang area had been rated as the natural protection zone. The environmental protection and sustainable development attracted much attention, while the economical development attracted much less. The pivotal and local industry has not been set up to support local economy. For example, in2008, the financial self-sufficiency rate just reached22.8%. Per capita net income for peasants in this region was less than one thousand and four hundred and eighty-eighty Yuan. More than50%of the peasants were not provided with adequate food and clothing. Inhabitants along the Nujiang Valley made a significant sacrifice and contribution to the environment protection. However, the poverty and backwardness need to be changed. And, the economy needs to be developed and the livelihood is in urgent need of improvement.The Nujiang valley is rich in natural resources and human resources to support its economic development. The valley is rich in flora and fauna, being a gene pool of life species and a museum of natural landscapes. It enjoys abundant mineral resources and hydropower resources, making it an important national strategic energy base and non-ferrous metal base. The Nujiang is a bonanza of culture, the paradise for tourism and a good place to nature and humanity. But this area is also the ecological Highlands, since it is environmentally fragile. Its development is limited as large-scale economic development may bring stress and damage to this area due to its environmental fragility.Based on the brewing since the late1980s,"the hydropower planning report about the middle and lower reaches of the Nujiang valley" was completed in July2003. In August2003, National Development and Reform Commission held the assessment on "the hydropower planning report about the middle and lower reaches of Nujiang Basin" and passed the middle and lower reaches hydropower development program. That attracted so much attention from not only scholars, media, civilian, but also central and local governments, NGOs in the downstream countries, who were involved in the argument about the dam. And then there are diffident views, supporting development and protection. Finally, the argument was set aside momentarily because of the instruction of "careful research, scientific decision" from the national leaders. The government officials of the Nujiang State submitted suggestions on the hydropower development to every representative of Yunnan Province in the National People’s Congress and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference in2010. Through the Two Sessions, they expected the hydropower development program of the valley to be passed and incorporated in "The Twelfth Five-year Plan". The Nujiang valley is facing the dilemma of economic development and environmental protection, while the debate on the development and protection lasted so many years without a clear conclusion. When ecological protection is put as a priority, while economic development is restricted by environment, how to protect the rights (including local financial income, residential income and living standard) of developing the basin? How to set up the development mode with a balance between human development and sustainable development of economy and society? How to build a mode adapting to both economic development and ecological protection? What would be the operation system and approaches? All these questions require deep research. The theme of this dissertation focuses on a balanced mode of economic development and substantial development of the Nujiang valley. This dissertation is divided into eight parts. The first is the introduction to the full text. It mainly points out the problem and introduces the concepts.The second part is the research category and theoretical basis. It mainly expounds the research on basic concepts and theories, including the right to development, economic fairness, sustainability, and environmental fairness. ethical foundation, natural sustainable and economic sustainability. The theory includes the theory of sustainable development, the theory of development rights, the duality theory, and theories of ecological economy including circular economy, green economy, and low carbon economy.The third part is about eminent ecological status of the Nujiang Valley through the perspective of the environmental fairness and sustainable development. Based on ecological status of the Nujiang Basin, the paper analyzes and values the importance of the Nujiang Valley for the local, national, downstream and international ecological factors. At the same time, it analyzes the ecological damage to the Nujiang Valley.The fourth part is focused on the social and economic development through the analysis on the economic fairness and the right to development. The paper states the analysis on the Nujiang Valley’s resources, level of economic development, poverty and backwardness factors, industrial structure and the growth pattern, economic poverty and social and political stability, respect to the economic development and fairness, and efforts for eliminating poverty.The fifth part is about the empirical analysis of the conflict between Nujiang economic development and environmental protection. Besides, it puts game analysis to use when analyzing conflict between development and protection. Finally, it states the efforts for resolving the problem.The sixth part states the domestic and overseas experiences about the development and environmental protection. The main content not only includes the experiences from the developed countries, such as the Mississippi Basin of the United States, Britain Rhine Valley, Australia Murray River valley; but also from the developing countries along the Amazon River. And the domestic advanced experiences include the Heihe River Basin and Taihu Valley, which are expected to be helpful to the future development and protection of the Nujiang.The seventh part bases on the choices of development mode for the Nujiang, while giving consideration to the sustainability and the right of development. This part respectively states the organic agriculture development, ecological tourism development, circular economy mode, carbon trade, allopatry development mode, bio-industry and clean energy development. Based on all of the choices stated, this part then goes into the development mode and characteristic industries of Nujiang, whose mainstay industry is hydro-electricity.Expounding the supporting policies and measures of the development mode for the Nujiang Basin based on the right of development and sustainable development is the main content of the eighth part. And then this part states the countermeasures to the development mode of the Nujiang Valley, combining the sustainable economic development with the sustainable environmental protection. Besides, this part also expounds Special Ecological Zones, Ecological compensation and transfer system; the tax system(such as resources tax, environment tax); the cultivation and support on folk environmental organizations; the most strict evaluation system; the ecological emigration; strengthening the International environment cooperation mechanism, etc.This article went into tentative exploration in three aspects as follows:1) the selection of the topicIt discusses the development mode balancing development rights and sustainable development, based on the example of the Nujiang Valley, which is very typical in the dilemma between ecology and economy. It can be an inspiration and reference for related theory research and practices in ecological economy and their practices.2) the research angleIt unveils the dilemma of economic development and ecological protection in the Nujiang Valley, by analyzing this basin’s ecological status through the environmental equity and sustainability, and on this basin’s current economic situations through the economic fairness and the right to development. It also puts forward a systematic development mode through the balance between development rights and sustainable development.3) the research methods It analyzes the Nujiang Valley’s ecosystem types with the application of a GIS. The analysis about the development and protection of the Nujiang Valley put game theory to use. Similarly, the analysis on the conflict between the basin’s economic development and environmental protection put SPSS to use. At the same time, the analysis of the Nujiang Valley’s development mode of eco-tourism is based on SWOT method, and recycling economy development mode on technical analysis methods.

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