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Revision of the Online Game Addiction Diagnostic Criteria, Construction of the Addiction Model, and Studied on the Addiction Prevention and Treatment

Author: DaiZuo
Tutor: MaQingGuo
School: Zhejiang University
Course: Management Science and Engineering
Keywords: Neuromanagement Online Game Addiction Diagnostic criteria Addiction Memory Attentional Bias Impulse Control Event-Related Potential
CLC: R749
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 533
Quote: 0
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With the continuous development and improvement of such infrastructure as Internet and so on, rapid speed of Internet enables Chinese online game industry to boom. The quantity of online gamers continued to grow rapidly, especially the continuous joining of new gamers of young age from primary and secondary school leaded to the continuous expansion of the online game market. However, at the same time, a great number of young online gamers was indulged in online games and even had the addiction symptoms with psychological dependence. Thus, the attention of all circles of society had concerntrated on the excessive use of online games.Currently, there have been great dispute over the concept of online addiction, definition standard and measuring tools. The study content and technical route had much divergence and problems and lack integrated theoretical model even more. Through the review of related literatures and collection of related documents of online games as well as the research manner of combining empirical study and EEG analysis, the paper performed 2 special topic studies i.e.1) revision of the online game addiction diagnostic criteria; 2) construction of the online game addiction model to systemtically discuss the forming mechanism of online games, better explain the how the addiction memory, attention bias and impulse control relate to the important aspects of addictive behavior.In the revision special topic on the online game addiction diagnostic criteria, we found that most definition indicators adopted in current online addiction analysis scale are not key to the online addiction rather than necessary characteristic of online addiction. They failed to reflect the physiological characteristics of addiction, lacked efficacy and reliability and failed to correctly differentiate online addicts and online fanatics, which maked the online rate obtained from many studies were overestimated. Therefore, an objective calibration was needed to validate and revise the available defining indicators.Based on previous scales, classify the symptoms with same meaning but inconsistent written expression, splited one question item describing several symptoms into different question items (one question item only describes one symptom), used unified term, which led to the initial online game addiction scale consisting of 13 question items. In order to correct the initial scale, we used this scale to measure a group of subjects with clear classification, and then revised the scale according to the measurement results and consistency of the classification of this group of subjects. There was one key problem i.e. the classification of this group of subjects was scientifically verified. With the adoption of related brain potential method of events and Stroop paradigm of addiction memory, the study found out the objective electrophysiological indicators able to differentiate online game addicts and normal online user and validates the classification. Through the questionnaire measurement of these two groups of subjects, deleted the question item that can’t correctly reflect classification, formed the "online game addiction scale", measured the reliability and efficacy and verified the stability, reliability and validity of "online game addiction scale". Subsequently, gave the total cut-off value of addiction tendency of inferred subjects.On the construction of online game addiction model in special topic 2, the study used 5 groups of experiments to systematically study the addiction memory and brain mechanism of online game addicts (addiction memory Stroop paradigm), online game addict’s attention bias (addiction Stroop paradigm) and preattention bias (revised Stroop color table paradigm) to related positive cues of online game, orientation reaction (novel P3a paradigm) to extraneous stimulus of online game addict, online game addict’s impulse control and their brain mechanism of related cues of online game (revised GoStop paradigm) and so on, tried to explain the respective role and interrelation of addiction memory, attention bias and impulse control in the online game addiction forming mechanism.Based on the above 2 special topic studies, the study tried to look for effective interventions to online game addiction and realized effective management of sickness behavior. The study proposed to distinguish online game lovers from online game addicts. The best time to prevent and control Internet addiction behavior should be the induction phase for the occurrence of addiction behavior. Take measures to avoid that people group easy to be addicted contacts with induction factors related to Internet so as to effectively prevent Internet addiction behavior.It was recommended in the study that the prevention work of Internet addiction should construct Level 1 prevention system and Level 2 prevention system. In the two-level prevention system, the people groups that we are mainly controlled are normal Internet users and addicts.The study was an exploration of pathological behavior neuromanagement. It had innovations of interdiscipline in terms of study method, study content, paradigm and countermeasures and had strong practical significance. It mainly had 3 innovation points as follows:(1) With the adoption of related ERP method of event and addiction memory Stoop paradigm, the study found out the objective electrophysiological indicators that could distinguish online game addicts and normal Internet users and taked this as an objective calibration to define the indicators for verification and correction. The significance lied in the fact that most definition scales of domestic and international Internet addiction were rewritten according to respective concept of Internet addiction, observation on the clinical symptoms of online addiction behavior as well as referring to DSM-IV (Diagnosis and Statistics Manual of Mental Illness Edition 4) and the definition indicators of other addiction behaviors, lacked an objective and scientific physiological indicator for calibration, their measuring tools lacked efficacy and reliability and couldn’t separate Internet addicts from Internet fanatics. The study found out the electrophysiological indicators peculiar to online game addicts by ERP technology, which was taken as the calibration to construct stable, reliable and effective "online game addiction scale" and gave the total cut-off values of addiction tendency of inferred subjects.(2) The study discussed the formation mechanism of online games in the perspective of nerve mechanism, systematically discussed the online game addict’s dynamic change and brain mechanism of processing characteristics of related cues of online game as well as improved and integrated the addiction model. The study found that as a type of behavior addiction, online game had peculiar addiction memory of related cues of the online game. When confronted with related positive clues, the addiction memory of the online game addict is induced and expection about the availability of addiction clue produces, which leads to the appearance of attention bias (and subjective craving) of addicts. This process occurs not only in the unconscious early automatic phase, but also in the conscious and controllable information processing and explanation phase. The online game addict’s attention bias against related positive clues reduces their inhibitory control ability, prompts them to make impulse decisions and makes the use behavior of online games out of inhibition. To some extent, the above system study verified the psychogenesis behavior addiciton of the materialless basis also had the physiological mechanism similar to material addiction, which verified that behavior can also induce the addiction behavior. In other words, maybe substance (or medicine) is not core to define if a individual is addicted. The core of addiction may be the continued development of individual harmful behavior without consideration of passive consequences.(3) Based on newly formed "online game addiction scale" and online game addiction model, the study proposed to construct preventive two-level system and treatment system of online games and advocated scientific diagnosis in the first place to correctly differentiate the status of online game users, performed corresponding control measures according to different Internet use status, put key people group for prevention into the Internet addict group. The indulgence phase to the addiction phase is the key time point for prevention and control. This study provided new study ideas and strategy guide for the regulation and intervention strategy study of Internet addiction of Chinese online game industry.

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