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Research on the Surge of Increasing Tram Fare in Tianjin in1932

Author: GaoYuanYuan
Tutor: SunZeXue
School: Central China Normal University
Course: Modern Chinese History
Keywords: Tianjin tram the surge of increasing fare public rights labor disputes Government and party Relationsthe
CLC: F572.89
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 31
Quote: 0
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Abstract


This essay is based on the Tianjin tram fare dispute case in the early1930s.Through the detailed description and specific analysis of the process of tram fare increase movement, its evolution and quell,we can clearly see that the intricate relationship between the tram company, tram workers, trade unions in Tianjin and its government and party headquarters, the different attitudes of the party and government towards disputes, as well as the interaction and competition among various interest groups in the dispute.Bishang tram and electric company of Tianjin which was founded earlier was a large-scale foreign-funded enterprise with franchise of tram and lights business. On January1st1932, due to rising prices and the cost of material, workers’demand for pensions, the company announced that all kinds of trams should increase the fare by two coppers. However, members of the public in Tianjin expressed strong opposition against it. Various autonomous regions and offices, the industry trade unions, education association in Tianjin had to petition the party and government authorities to stop the tram fare from increasing quickly. Tianjin Municipal Government had to mediate and negotiate with the company for several times but having no results. Under the guidance of Tianjin’s party headquarters, the trade union formed the an-ti tram fare increase Committee, organized pickets to have the "unpaid tram tickets campaign" in order to force the company to cancel the decision of increasing fare.With the ongoing movement of pickets, the trade union of Tianjin appeared interest differentiation. The representative of some groups in the trams trade union not only dissatisfied with the movement of the pickets, also directed at the party leadership behind the pickets to initiate the expulsion of party headquarter "Liu butong movement"."Pickets’unpaid tram tickets campaign’ and the expulsion of the party headquarter "Liu butong movement" were intertwined and confronted. As a result, Pickets and tram workers had several bloody clashes, tram workers even united together to strike to protest pickets. Tram fare increasing surge increasingly intensified. At the same time, the tram fare dispute under the negotiations of consul of Belgium in Tianjin and Hebei Provincial Government still remained unresolved.After the tram workers’ strike, the city government prohibited picket action, and then Liu butong left Tianjin. Later, expulsion of "Liu movement" stopped. Tianjin Party and government authorities began to cooperate, held the party and government joint meeting to order companies to restore the original price immediately. But the company refused to obey. After the negotiation of Belgian Minister and Peking appeasement Corruption and the Foreign Ministry, the incident rose from commercial dispute to diplomatic mediation. The surge of increasing tram fare ended up with the company improving the fare as well as paying to the government60000yuan. After the increasing fare dispute, the trouble between labor and management began to appear. Due to the increasing of the tram fare and the company’s profits, workers demanded for higher wages and improved treatment. When the requirements were not met, the tram workers consciously initiated the "unpaid tram tickets" movement.Through the dynamic analysis of the case, this paper clearly indicates different sides’competition and interaction in dispute. Civic groups who opposed to the increasing tram fare contain a certain amount of nationalist sentiment, but mainly maintain their own interests. They are opposed to the tram fare increase, questioning of government price regulation of public utilities, which reflect the awareness of public’s rights and subjective consciousness. During the interaction between government and company, the company has been a tough stance while the government is always in a passive position. Events rise from commercial disputes to diplomatic mediation. All of this have fully proved the weakness of government power. The party headquarters are trying to use movements to solve problem in order to challenge the authority of the Government but at last lose the popular support. The party and government combine together from separation to cooperation. The tram union shows the improvement of the organization and the internal solidarity in this incident. No matter when they fight against the picket movement in the surge and protest against the party headquarters, or slow down the leadership of the workers in a labor dispute, protest against the company, they still regard the best interests of workers as a criterion.

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CLC: > Economic > Transportation and economic > Urban transport economy > China's urban transportation economy > Urban transportation history
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