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Comparative Research Between the Longshan Culture Tombs and the Erlitou Culture Tombs

Author: YanFei
Tutor: ZuoXiangPing
School: Zhengzhou University
Course: Archaeology and Museology
Keywords: the Longshan culture the Erlitou culture Tombs Comparativeresearch
CLC: K878.8
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 96
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Abstract


The reaesrch about the Erlitou culture is preferred to the typological comparison analysis of pottery in academia,and it is generally believed that the Erlitou culture developed from the third period of Wangwan culture.From the the perspective of typology,pottery of combination of the Erlitou culture and the third period of Wangwan culture can be composed of a continuous sequence,but from the perspective of tomb,the differences of both cultures are obvious.The thesis includes five parts:Chapter Ⅰ is the introduction.It includes the Longshan cultural and the Erlitou cultural definition of culture as well as the two tombs research review, research methods and research significance.Chapter Ⅱ is the Longshan cultural tombs.500tombs of the Longshan culture have been excavated,and Sishui Yinjiacheng, Jiaoxian Sanlihe,Rizhao Yaowangcheng,Zhucheng Chengzi,LinQu Zhufeng,etc are the main sites.They present large distribution but small concentration,in-group distribution,the similar direction of each group,and all these reflected the appearance and popularity of family.The grade is classified into4types,oversize graves,lagre graves, medium-sized graves, small graves and the medium-sized graves was divided into A, B patterns.The class stratification was obvious,strict orderly,and the gap between rich and poor was big.The shapes were rectangle vertical earthen pit tombs, and with the special structure, such as rare side niche.Most of the coffin were woodiness,including a coffin,a Guo,a coffin with a coffin,acoffin with two Guo and so on, and reflected the stern and comprehensive hierarchy.Back straight burial was the main burial form.Funeral objects contained mainly pottery,with jadeware, stoneware, turquoiseware,bone artifacts and bones of animals,and the common wares coexist with funerary,The quatity of the funeral objects is positive relevant to the tomb grade.Lots of sophisticated burial objects reflected a high level of manufacturing technology and social productivity.Chaper Ⅲ is the Erlitou cultural tombs.They have been found more than 500,and the main sites were Yanshi Erlitou,Luoyang Donggangou, Dongmagou, Yichuan Baiyuan, Xiaxian Dongxiafeng, Xichuan Xiawanggang etc.They present large distribution but small concentration.There existed family system and hereditary system.They were classified into3types,lagre graves, medium-sized graves,small graves and the medium-sized graves was divided into A, B patterns.The class stratification was obvious and the gap between rich and poor was big. The shapes were main rectangle vertical earthen pit tombs and with a small amount of urn coffin graves and cave graves.The main coffin were woodiness. The main burial form was the back straight burial.Funeral objects contained mainly pottery, with bronzes jadeware, stoneware, turquoiseware,lacquerware,bone artifacts and bones of animals.The quatity of the funeral objects is positive relevant to the tomb grade.The appearance of bronzes was the symbol of a new era,and many exquisite funerary objects reflected more perfect Social division of labor,higher craft level,and showed the new heights of social productivity level.Chapter IV is the comparetive study of the two cultures. It includes shapes,the direction, the system of using ware, grades and social patterns.They were lots of commonaity in layout,shape,structure,system of using ware and social patterns between the two cultures.Both of them had more perfect Social division of labor,developed handicrafts,and exquisite handicraft products.They are the representative of advanced culture,which represents the peak of the development of social productive force at that time.Chaper V is conclusion. The burial custom of the Erlitou culture formed its unique burial custom during the development,and which was influenced by the Longshan culture at the same time.Compared with the Longshan culture,the Erlitou culture was more pragmatic.The unified and stable social environment maked the burial customs more consistent.And problems of the paper and prospects are pointed out.

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CLC: > History, geography > Cultural Relics and Archaeology > China 's Cultural Relics and Archaeology > Ruins > Tombs, burial
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