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Deployment Algorithms of Wireless Sensor Net-works and Some Techniques of Autonomous Deploy-ing Robots

Author: ZhangSiJian
Tutor: LinZhiZuo; YanGangFeng
School: Zhejiang University
Course: Control Theory and Control Engineering
Keywords: Wireless sensor network deployment maintenance Voronoi diagram icing relative position measurement 3D laser scanner
CLC: TP242
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 154
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Abstract


Wireless sensor network (WSN) is one of the most important techniques in the21st century. Its applications include habitat monitoring, military reconnaissance, structure mon-itoring, health monitoring, etc. The deployment problem studied in this thesis is one of the fundamental researches in WSNs. Taking into account the environment’s effects on wireless communication, an online incremental algorithm using one or multiple robots is proposed to solve the deployment problem, for which each robot deploys sensors one-at-a-time with the objective of using less number of sensors to cover an area and maintain communication connectivity. The incremental deployment and maintenance problems in real environments arc investigated respectively. Additionally, for the purpose of motion co-operation and environment sensing, some techniques of autonomous deploying robots are studied and some prototypes are designed. The contributions of this thesis are cataloged as follows:Firstly, a deployment problem of WSNs subject to practical constraints of communi-cation and sensing is studied. A deployment algorithm is developed using one or multiple autonomous robots to set up a static WSN in an area incrementally. The loop packet loss probability is used as a metric to evaluate the communication quality, and the deploying robots use this metric to test performance of connectivity in real time. A cooperative prob-abilistic sensor sensing model is applied for coverage evaluation and the coverage of the whole area is guaranteed. Both simulations and experiments using self-made wireless sen-sors are conducted to validate the algorithm.Secondly, an application case of WSN deployment for icing thickness monitoring on overhead power transmission lines is studied. A novel monitoring method is proposed and an icing monitoring capacitance sensor is designed. The sensing model of this sensor is introduced. Moreover, the above deployment algorithm is applied to search the location for every monitoring sensor on the power lines, so that a wireless icing monitoring system is built to cover all power lines. This study demonstrates the applicability of the proposed deployment algorithm and validates the algorithm.Thirdly, an autonomous maintenance problem subject to practical constraints of com-munication and sensing is investigated. It is assumed that the locations of survival sensors, malfunctioning nodes and obstacles are unknown a priori when a WSN is faulted. The goal is to reestablish connectivity and coverage with less number of sensor nodes to be placed. One or more autonomous robots are adopted to search the survival nodes in the target area, acquire their information, avoid obstacles and deploy new nodes to repair the network. Similar as the deployment problem, the maintenance procedure takes into account communication constraints and deploys new nodes incrementally.Fourthly, a novel infrared sensor based mobile platform for multi-robot cooperative deployment systems is presented. The infrared sensor is able to not only measure relative direction and distance between two robots, but also distinguish different robots. This sen-sor is designed and the measuring mechanism is introduced. Compared with other infrared sensors, this sensor is not affected by the reflected surface and can be used in low illu-mination environment. The mobile platform provides essential functions for multi-robot cooperative deployment. Two coordination problems for multi-robot deployment, namely, rendezvous and formation tracking control are studied. First, a new local control strategy based on routing schemes and using only bearing measurements is proposed for the ren-dezvous problem. Second, a zero steady-error formation tracking control is developed by introducing an integral component. Experiments are carried out based on the mobile plat-forms, which demonstrate not only the success of our proposed control strategies, but also the applicability of the mobile platforms.Finally, a3D environment sensing system is studied aiming at the environment acqui-sition of moving deploying robots. A3D scanning system based on2D laser range finder (LRF) can be used in low illumination environment. A3D scanning device whose scan-ning area and scanning resolution are adjustable is designed, and the working mechanism is introduced. In order to build a3D model of a target, a method for fast registration of3D images based on ICP algorithm is proposed. This method determines the minimum over-lap between two continuous scanning images to speed up the3D digitization. This sensing system provides essential functions such as obstacle avoidance and target identification for deploying robots.In this thesis, not only the simulation results but also experiment results are provided to demonstrate the success and applicability of the proposed deployment and maintenance algorithm. Some prototypes are manufactured to validate the performance of the proposed techniques of deploying robots.

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CLC: > Industrial Technology > Automation technology,computer technology > Automation technology and equipment > Robotics > Robot
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