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Analysis of Genetic Characteristics and Interploidy Crosses in Autotetraploid and Allotetraploid of Maize and Zea Perennis

Author: LiYi
Tutor: TangQiLin
School: Sichuan Agricultural University
Course: Crop Genetics and Breeding
Keywords: Maize Zea perennis Autotetraploid Allotetraploid Interploidy cross Genomic in situ hybridization
CLC: S513
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 32
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Abstract


The polyploidization and distant hybridization play a significant role in plant evolution and breeding. In this research, diploid and autotetraploid of corn as well as the wild relative Zea perennis and their hybrids were used as material, the genetic characteristics of auto-allotetraploid and crossability of interploidy crosses between diploid and tetraploid were analysised by the method of morphology, cytology, molecular cytogenetics. The main research results are as follows:1. A comparison of biological character between diploid maize wf9and its autotetraploid Twf9showed that, The plant height, stalk girth, leaf number, leaf area, length of inflorescence, branch number of tassel, ear position height and hundred grain weight of Twf9were significantly higher than that of wf9. However, the pollen stainability, seed set rate and emergence rate of Twf9were significantly lower than wf9. It is said that, although tetraploid maize has a larger advantage on many traits than diploid, solving the problem of low pollen sterility, seed set rate and seed viability is needed.2. The cytology identification of tetraploid maize (Twf9) showed that, the chromosome number of the51plants in the study range from37to42. And42plants of which have the euploid chromosome number of40, that account for82.4%of the total. It is said that, most plants in the tetraploid populations can keep a euploidy trait. The chromosome number of other17.6%plants are not40, which is showed that the meiosis of tetraploid maize are not all normal. Some aneuploid gametes were produced, and which may contribute to the low pollen fertility and seed set rate of Twf9as well as the aneuploid appeared in progeny.3. Using autotetraploid maize TB73,398and Twf9as the female parent, cross with Zea perennis and with a seed set rate of63.6%,70.7%and63.3%, respectively. The allotetraploid AB9of TB73×9475were selected to study, and11plants were geted at last. With the chromosome number identified, the results showed that3plants with a chromosome number of38,4plants with39and4plants with40. It is said that, a number of aneuploid were appeared in allotetraploid in Zea. The selfing seed set rate of AB9range from56.3%to86.1%, plump seed were generated.25seeds were selected by random in the study, with germination,23plants were survival at last (named AB9S). A cytology identification results of AB9S showed that,3plants with a chromosome number of38,9plants with39,6plants with40and5plants with41. It suggests that, the progeny population of new allotetraploid in Zea is unstable in early years.4. Allotetraploid3-6was the hybrid of tetraploid maize X Zea perennis which has selected by generations. The result of cytology identification of12plants showed that, the chromosome number of3-6range from39to41. Among which,9plants with a chromosome number of40,2plants with39and1plant with41. It seems suggests that, the population of3-6was more stability than AB9S, the increase of stability may caused by years of domestication.5. Interploidy crosses between diploid maize (B73, wf9, Mo17and48-2) and autotetraploid (Twf9,398) as well as allotetraploid (AB9,9475and3-6) showed that, when diploid maize cross with AB9,9475and3-6generated a higher seed set rate and the seed with a well development, with little shriveled kernel. When diploid maize cross with398and Twf9, generated a low seed set rate and most of the seed were shriveled kernel. It seems to say that, there is an obvious obstacles in interploidy crosses between diploid maize and autotetraploid maize, but not between maize and allotetraploid in Zea.6. Germination test results of hybrid seeds between B73and allo-autotetraploid (Twf9,398, AB9,9475and3-6) showed that, B73×AB9, B73×9475and B73×3-6have a emergence rate of74.4%,70.0%and28.2%, respectively, and have stronger seedings (the emergence rate of B73was99.0%). The emergence rate of B73×Twf9and B73×398were6.0%and7.0%, respectively, and generated weak seedings. It showed that interploidy crosses between diploid maize and allotetraploid generated high seed set rate and high viability kernel. All allotriploid in this resuch showed a chromosome number of30.

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