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From "cultural exception" to the "French cultural policy

cultural diversity" -1993-2005 years in international negotiations

Author: YaoZuo
Tutor: XiaoYunShang
School: Shanghai International Studies University
Course: French Language and Literature
Keywords: France Cultural Policy Exceptions Diversity Public Service International negotiations Cultural Identity
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2014
Downloads: 1
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State intervention is France's traditional culture. The State supports cultural undertakings from the public service theory, the welfare state and the construction of public cultural service of the French synchronous development. The cultural product has the artistic value, also has the economic attributes, the characteristics of cultural industry from the angle of economics, explained the rationality of state intervention. In addition, the French domestic cultural development policy of "special" model for the foreign cultural policy provides the historical basis and institutional guarantee. With the rapid development of global economic integration and the new technology, the public service constantly by the liberalization and privatization of the challenge, be the first to bear the brunt of cultural field. GATT 1993 "Uruguay round" of negotiations is "cultural exception" supporters and free trade advocates confrontation of the battlefield, the representative of the former is France, called for cultural products and general merchandise distinction; the latter is represented by the America, requirements will be free competition principle extends to the field of trade in services. The focus of contradiction of negotiations is the film and audiovisual products trade liberalization, and these two industries in France enjoys national perfect protection mechanism. To this end, the French government is pushing the EU countries reached an agreement, and won the French national support, make their own film and audiovisual products from the principles of free trade restriction. But this victory is only a stage achievement, then the international negotiations, "cultural exception" still repeatedly questioned, a new round of negotiations as the OECD multilateral investment agreement negotiations and the world trade organization. In twentieth Century 90 at the end of the 1960s, the concept of "cultural diversity" gradually develop and grow, gradually replaced the "cultural exception". Though the analysis on the relationship between scholars are not the same, the French still firmly maintains its own cultural identity, against USA cultural dominance. In the international negotiations on "cultural diversity", UNESCO plays an important role. Vigorously promoting the French government, the general conference of UNESCO in 2001 and 2005 has adopted the "Declaration of the world cultural diversity" and "the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions Convention". "Convention" marks the concept of cultural diversity was officially included in the scope of protection of international law, but its legal effect and WTO treaty and the gap compared both in trade disputes, it was difficult to coordinate. In addition, the diversity principle has many deficiencies, the implementation process also and cultural policy domestic French conflict, such as in promoting cultural diversity and maintain the French national characteristics to choose. The French maintained "cultural exception" and "cultural diversity", not only economic and cultural considerations, but also to have the important meaning of social and political. In the process of exploring the national and market equilibrium relationship, France insisted that its cultural policy model, and actively explore new ways of globalization.

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