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The Research on Disasters and Its Social Coping of Henan Province during Qing Dynasty

Author: ZuoNaZuo
Tutor: XuTan
School: Nankai University
Course: History of Ancient China
Keywords: Qing Dynasty Henan province disaster social coping
CLC: D691
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 123
Quote: 0
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Abstract


HeNan is located in southern and northern China border, complex terrain, climate, hydrology and other obvious transitional in nature. Plus located in the Yellow River, a long history of agricultural reclamation, people excessive cultivation of economic activities and a series of improper environmental damage caused by long-term accumulation, easily lead to a variety of disasters, frequent natural calamities and associated administrative division when adjustments.For the Qing Dynasty Henan common disaster research, are more inclined to water, drought disasters, from a global disaster on inadequate care unite and associated disaster among more concentrated in the drought of locusts companions. The author on the basis of previous studies Qing Dynasty Henan water, drought, locusts, disease, frost, wind, hail, earthquakes, etc. The frequency of occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution of types of disasters, major disasters before a more systematic statistical analysis. Pointed out that the neighboring province of Henan Province in Qing passenger suffered much water floods the disaster; major drought across Jin, straight, Shaanxi, Shandong and other provinces the number of higher frequency; than drought locust companions, locusts and droughts associated with a higher sex intertwined; Epidemic Diseases and floods, droughts, frost disaster has strong inter-secondary, but after flood disaster oncoming epidemic is more rapid, more droughts plague epidemic after lasting, often leading to severe frost disaster rinderpest.Warehousing, water conservancy construction is the local disaster prevention in two areas. Qing Dynasty Henan warehousing studies involving Huaiqing warehousing, water transport, etc., few global exposition. Therefore, the author often open, ready position, canal warehouse, thistle position, social position, granary and other official positions kinds of folk establishment number, distribution density for the overall operational efficiency of the textual analysis. That the large scale of the counties in western Henan canal warehouse building is the nearest relief for the government to consider the strategic northern provinces, but also the construction of the Qing Dynasty Henan important feature of official positions. Yellow River dike breach, migration of the disaster, in Junji years, Jiaqing later became two of the Qing Dynasty in Henan Yellow River flood peak period, Juan slow land tax, recruiting people to resume business, wide open ditches, field boundary dispute regulating local government of the Qing Dynasty in Henan major disaster governance measures.Famine Famine Qing dynasties system sets the culmination in the newspaper disaster, disaster survey date regulations, exploration, disaster relief personnel selected aspects rationalize, Juan-free, cut-off frequency of canal, the amount beyond history. Qianlong period of validity of the national disaster relief financial position, emphasizing the governors hands-on, take strict precautions against fraud clerks are closely linked. By the Qianlong when hundreds of thousands of taels of silver to help merchants Juanyin relief of disdain, decisively rejected, to increase the commercial tax Jiaqing later, after additional likin Xianfeng, etc., highlighting the middle of the Qing central government after the failure, and commercial, merchant power famine relief in the country of their status is rising.Jiaqing eighteen years (1813) Henan big drought, drought, floods, frost disasters, riots occurred cross, disaster situation grave. I can see there are three existing research, namely:to report on the disaster, disaster Juan-free finishing papers and other historical materials, Kerry road between famine Day Chi Treatise brief examples of the sub-disaster, disaster relief and Qing Dynasty Silver Honesty relief pattern Changes papers, the latter mainly outlined the times of drought disasters, floods, relief funding sources analyzed a small part-Silver Honesty motivation for disaster relief, rescue and macroscopic aspects influence. The author of "ask Henan shirt disaster record" and the historical data contained in the relevant files were systematically combing statistics, the second harvest of the counties in Henan disasters scores, disaster counties quantity, disaster level, the disaster evolution; Silver Honesty donate Relief frequency, scope, amount, distribution methods and share; national Juan-free, cross-sectional canal relief efforts; country folk donations in the gentry, merchants, when providers, warp and women of different social groups, donations, facilities and donations species; Thom Province eighty I have set up soup kitchens county number, position, porridge relief scale, management features, to do a more in-depth analysis. Further argues Jiaqing later, with the decline of state finance, the government has increased the local officials to donate Lim, the reliance on private donations, official Governor’s office to become the local gentry Relief important feature of transaction processing.Guangxu Dynasty (1875-1879years) major drought in five provinces in North China, is a large drought occurred in Henan Province in Qing, also the current disaster History of the Qing Dynasty in Henan is a major focal point, but still there are many blind spots:the official total degree of relief, the author of the study in the senior scholars based on the "Memorial Zunzhi billing reimbursement Henan Charity Case Silver Qianliang put the number of branch off" data contained in disaster relief, disaster relief in the second official total degree of relief, local relief silver m raising the number of channels and do a more precise statistical analysis; reconstruction is past,"Ding Famine" the most neglected part of the study, through the Edict file, disaster relief files, storage utilization excavations credit record, you can learn expansion of local government disaster took positions in Ao complement to buy grain warehouse, dredge canals and other important initiatives; through the "Chyi Yu Jin donate relief credit record straight" system combing analysis Charity activities Jiangnan usage of each batch of donations, meaning the disaster relief activities in Henan exact beginning and ending month, meaning gentry built Xiangfu South Gate with good habitat conditions remain the almoner, righteousness Gentry Gentry links with disaster cooperation.Disasters tend to bring people pastoral doomed, ruin and death of tragedy. Cause a significant reduction in the population, the potential to be home to decline, merchants out of business, is no longer a town prosperity, economic development becomes sluggish, human nature have a great impact on human relations, derived from a variety of gods faith. The belief in spirits for people to correctly establish the concept of Calamity, prevention practices carried out by the negative impact is not to be underestimated.

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