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The diplomatic thought and practice of Liu Shaoji's 1949-1966 years

Author: XiaoZuo
Tutor: MaQiMin
School: Shaanxi Normal University
Course:
Keywords: Liu Shaoqi New China Diplomacy
CLC: D829
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 120
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Abstract


Liu Shaoqi is an outstanding theorist and politician. In the seventeen years from1949, the founding of the people’s republic of china, to1966, the beginning of the "Great Cultural Revolution", Liu Shaoqi had great influence on the CPC’s diplomatic decision, formed his diplomatic thoughts, and personally participated in many very important diplomatic activities of the New China in many ways.Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought is firstly established in Marxist international politics. The understanding of the essence of the time of Marxist international politics and historical materialism’s understanding on international problems is of important methodology significance. What is included in Marxist international politics theory such as the understanding of the essence of the age, revolution and war, opposing hegemonism and power politics, party relations, peaceful coexisting, new type of international politics polity, etc, provides Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought and practice with a direct understanding starting point. The doctrine of the moderation and harmonious sprit in Chinese excellent traditional culture is another source of Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought. Liu Shaoqi has systematically studied Chinese traditional culture based on the Confucian textbooks during the process of his growth and he embodies the doctrine of the moderation and harmonious sprit of the Chinese traditional culture in Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought and practice in New China. The international political environment of the Cold War provides the formation of Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought and practice condition of the times and also determines the key issues of Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thoughts and practice. The CPC’s diplomatic thought and practice during the new democratic revolution period provides very important historical basis for Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought and practice in New China.From the year1944to the foundation of the New China, the CPC’s diplomatic organization, from the Foreign Affairs Section of the Central Military Commission, the Central Foreign Affairs Section, to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, experienced a complicated changing process. To view from the power mechanism, from the year1944to1966, the CPC’s diplomatic decision was based on "Mao Zedong-Liu Shaoqi-Zhou Enlai" decision mechanism. In this mechanism, Liu-Shaoqi has great power which is second only to Mao Zedong. Liu Shaoqi’s such important role in diplomatic decision in the New China directly comes from his position in the CPC. Liu Shaoqi’s charicter is clearly showed in this mechanism.It is of great importance of Liu Shaoqi’s theoretical thinking on China’s peaceful diplomacy at the different stages of the new China’s development. The main contents and basis features of Liu Shaoqi’s theoretical thinking on China’s peaceful diplomacy may be reflected mainly in Liu Shaoqi’s three speeches:speech at the party’s National Conference in1955, Address at the party’s eight’s national congress in1956and the speech at the fourth meeting in the Science department of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.Liu Shaoqi played key role in the establishment of the Sino-Soviet national alliance, which was at the aspects of the formation of the theoretical basis, the political basis and the social basis of the Sino-Soviet national alliance. To be specific, the main points are:Liu Shaoqi’s well-known works Internationalism and Nationalism in1948by elaborating the opposite theory, internationalism and nationalism, clearly showed the CPC’s attitude towards supporting the Soviet Union in the conflict between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, and dispelled Stalin’s doubts that the CPC and Mao Zedong would become Yugoslavia and Tito in Asia, thus, laying a good ideological foundation for the New China to join the socialist camp headed by the Soviet Union and the formation of the Sino-Soviet Alliance. Liu Shaoqi’s visit to the Soviet Union in1949prepared the political ground for the Sino-Soviet national alliance; Liu Shaoqi negotiated a preliminary agreement with the Soviet Union on the issues of plans for national reconstruction of the New China, the two parties’historical problems, the lessons of the Chinese revolution and the handling of Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between China and the Soviet. This prepared the political ground for Mao Zedong’s visit to the Soviet Union after the foundation of the New China and the signing of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, and thus prepared the political ground for the relationship of Sino-Soviet Alliance. The Sino-Soviet Friendship Association whose first president is Liu Shaoqi after the foundation of the New China, is at its golden period of development when Liu Shaoqi was the president. By arranging large amount of work and abundant activities, the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association eliminating the doubting Soviet and anti-soviet emotion among the common Chinese people, greatly promoting the thought of Sino-Soviet friendship among the common Chinese people, and thus laying the social ground of the Sino-Soviet national alliance.Peripheral diplomacy is main part of Liu Shaoqi’s diplomacy thoughts. At the turning point of the establishment of New China, Liu Shaoqi’s narrate systematically the vision of "world revolution"in Asia, that was:make the Chinese revolutionary lessons as reference, promoting the Asian counties’national democratic revolutionary movement, showing the CPC’s a kind of special understanding and thinking about communist revolution and relationship between China and the its neighboring countries. After the foundation of the New China, under the leadership and direct responsibility of Liu Shaoqi, the New China rapidly begins wholly to assist the Vietnam politically, economically and militarily, promoting the Vietnam’s struggle against France to be fully developed and achieved the final success. Liu Shaoqi under very complicated background paid two series of important state visits to the neighboring countries in the1960s of the20th century, that is:as Chinese President to visit to Indonesia, Burma, Cambodia and Viet Nam from April to May,1963and visits to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Burma from February to June in1966, which are located at strategic key points in central Asia, southeast Asia and South Asia. By those visits, Liu Shaoqi bridged the understanding and friendship between Chinese people and people from various countries and districts in the world, working very hard for a peaceful international and a favorable peripheral environment for China’s socialist construction course. In the meantime, those visits provide powerful peripheral security safeguard for implementing the diplomatic strategy of "attaching importance to both the south and the north" and the policy of Aiding Vietnam and Resisting USA. The thought and practice of Liu Shaoqi’s peripheral diplomacy reflects not only the ideological characteristics under the certain conditions at that time, but also reflects the characteristics of highly safeguarding national security and protecting the core national interests.Party diplomacy is also the main part of Liu Shaoqi’s diplomacy thoughts, which was very clear in the handling the crisis of the Polish and the Hungarian Events and the trend of the Sino-Soviet party relations before and after Sino-Soviet debate as the penetrating points. The Polish and the Hungarian Events are events of crisis in socialist political development in the50th of the twentieth century. Liu Shaoqi represented the CPC and actively took part in the handling of the crisis, effectively spread the thought of equality between parties and equality between socialist countries that the CPC advocates, what’s more, he promoted the expanding of China’s influence in the Soviet Union and East European countries and China’s international prestige has risen notably. During the process of the Sino-Soviet debate, basing on the interests of the CPC, Liu Shaoqi tired hard to separate the relationship between parties with relationship between nations, fatherly developed the CPC’s party diplomatic thought. Also this part studies Liu Shaoqi’s activities and thought concerning the international association with the non-ruling communist parties and the workers’parties.Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought has its historical characteristics. Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thinking and practice are consecutively on the basis of opposing camps of capitalism and socialism. This, on the one hand, makes Liu vhaoqi’s diplomatic thought were strongly characterized by theoretical feature, but on the other hand, it was strongly characterized by the practical feature. Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought is an important part of Liu Shaoqi’s thought and also an important part of the CPC’s diplomatic thought. From the aspect of understanding and grasping the relationship between China and the world, LiuShaoqi’s diplomatic thought has already contained the cognitive element, that is:regarding peace as the main theme of the times. In the meantime, from the thinking of the Chinese development path, Liu Shaoqi’s diplomatic thought also contains the important thinking on the road of Chinese peaceful development, showing China’s international political image of taking the road of peaceful development, and this, to cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics in contemporary China, is of very important significance and value in thinking history. Also Liu Shaoqi’s thought of Peripheral diplomacy and party diplomacy is important for contemporary China’s Peripheral diplomacy and party diplomacy. Also it is of significance for the development of socialism with Chinese Charaterictics.

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CLC: > Political, legal > Diplomacy, international relations > Chinese Foreign > Chinese diplomatic history,foreign relations history
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