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Anson Burlingame and "Cooperation Policy" What Toward China Adopted by U.S

Author: XiaoZuo
Tutor: ZhaoZhiHui
School: Zhejiang Normal University
Course: World History
Keywords: Anson Burlingame cooperation policy toward China
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 12
Quote: 0
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"Cooperation policy" was the policy toward China adopted by the United States in1960s. Since rehabilitation after civil war, the United States has built up strength to seize Chinese market which they coveted for a long time and was not completely occupied by the European powers. In the face of domestic strife and foreign aggression, the Qing Government turned increasingly to foreign cooperation. By dint of this opportunity, the United States proposed implementing cooperation policy with western powers and the Qing Government.After the end of American Civil War, the United States has ultimately removed the obstacles for its capitalism development. Due to the rise of integrated strength, the United States could finally expand overseas business in Asia, especially China. However, compared with the senior capitalist powers such as Britain and France which exerted a profound influence on China, the United States was far from strong. To avoid becoming a follower of Britain and France, it has developed the proper independent diplomatic policy, and meanwhile, it has established cooperation policy to weaken the influence of western powers in China and plan for its long-term interests. Since the First Opium War in1840, the Qing Government has been deeply aware that it lacked the ability to rival strong weapons. Thus, it was forced to constantly make compromises and honor agreements with western powers. In the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the corruptive and declining feudal dynasty was in great peril. In the face of rebellion, the frail Cixi&Yixin Group started the1861Coup in an attempt to put down domestic peasant uprising by dint of foreign forces for the purpose of cementing dynasticism. For western powers, they could never control China and create benefits in China without the help of the stable governance of Qing Dynasty. Therefore, the cooperation policy presented by the United States exactly fitted in with the wishes of western powers and the Qing Government. Thus, the domestic and overseas forces joined up to negotiate about cooperations so as to protect the interests of the Qing Government as well as the benefits of western powers in China.In1960s, Anson Burlingame, an American envoy to China, played a significant role in the proposal and implementation of cooperation policy. It was he that came to China for the purpose of cooperating with western powers under the instruction of Williams H. Seward, the US Secretary of State at that time. Upon arrival, he carried out a furry of diplomatic activity with officials of the Qing Government and western powers. Based on his new understanding about China after communication, he put into practice the cooperation concept of Seward in combination with his new ideas. Finally, after negotiation with western powers, the principle and scope of cooperation policy were confirmed to support the Qing Government without interfering in China’s territorial integrity based on ensuring the vested interests of every country and the equality of business opportunities. The cooperation was implemented between powers as well as between powers and the Qing Government.Anson Burlingame began the implementation of cooperation policy under the support of U.S. Government. He was acting as peacemaker between the Qing Government and big powers to relieve their contradictions and conflicts during the events of Osborn Fleet and Burgevine and the territorial issues of Shanghai and Ningbo. This has helped to protect the interests of the Qing Government and the western powers as well as make the Qing Government trust the United States more. Therefore, when Anson Burlingame was about to return to the United States at the end of his term, the Qing Government requested him to lead Chinese diplomatic corps to the western countries, which attempted to show that the Qing Government hoped for the friendly relations and cooperation. And meanwhile, Anson Burlingame took over the mission for the purpose of the continuously effective cooperation policy and the long-term profits of the United States. After Anson Burlingame has led Chinese diplomatic corps to over10western countries, the Burlingame Treaty signed in the United States kept appealing for the effect of cooperation policy. All the western countries to which he visited supported and acceded to cooperation. This has not only took into account China’s interests to please the Qing Government, but also weakened the influence of western powers in China, which has provided more chances for the United States to gain benefits in China.Cooperation policy served as the transitional policy of the United States in the19th century. It has carried on the peace principle of traditional diplomatic policy, started the new cooperation stage, and created an independent diplomatic path."Its noninterference and non-destruction of China’s territory and domestic fairs" has laid a foundation for "open door and equality of opportunity" of America’s open-door policy at the end of19th century. The capital expansion required that the United States should create more benefits in China and take account of the powerful rivals, namely, western powers. Therefore, the cooperation with the Qing Government and western powers could not only help to constrain the further requirements of European Countries but also maintain and increase its benefits in China. As a matter of fact, this could reduce the influence of western countries in China, which was conductive to increasing America’s popularity in China and making the rulers of the Qing Government trust the United States more. When giving consideration to the interests of the Qing Government under authorization, this policy tried to have the United States develop relationships with western countries and the Qing Government to realize diplomatic balance. This could guarantee that China stayed open to the western countries, especially the United States, and meanwhile, the United States could continue the vested interests and obtain new benefits and privilege in China by way of bilateral cooperation. Therefore, in essence, cooperation policy refers to the agreement among big powers, which aims to govern China by way of cooperation for the purpose of more benefits. Though cooperation policy has relieved the contradictions among big powers, taken into account the interests of the Qing Government, and started the diplomatic path of China, it has provided more privileges for the United States in China and in fact deepened the control of western powers over China. Therefore, it is undeniable that this policy is aggressive in nature.

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