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Research on Institutional Changes to China's University Teacher Employment System

Author: YangYi
Tutor: ZhouHong
School: Southwestern University
Course: Higher Education
Keywords: Universities Teacher Employment System Subject Changing Methods Path Selection
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Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 173
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Abstract


University teacher employment system is not only an important part of modern university system, but also the important content of the internal management reform of universities. International and domestic economic and social development of both international and domestic, the trend of internationa of higher education raise new demands on reform of university teacher employment system and the universities must face a variety of challenges, through institutional innovation, constantly enhance the vitality and efficiency of teacher employment system to build a solid talent base for school development strategies and basic functions achievement. To study the changes to university teacher employment system, exploring the logic laws of institutional changes and provide guidance for teacher employment system reform is the proper meaning and a major issue of university reform and development. The paper is divided into seven chapters and the main contents are described below.Part1is the introduction which mainly puts forward problems and describes research meaning, basic concepts, research ideas, framework design, and research methods. Also, the research methods and data sources applied in this article have been introduced. Research questions are raised from the practice:main body dislocation brings endless confusion and problems to changes of the university teacher employment system; the government continues to dominate and control the employment of teachers; be lacking of vitality on university system innovation; the profession of teaching is less attractive; utilitarian tendency is serious and so on. Analysis and evaluation for relative references of both domestic and abroad relating to the employment system for teachers of colleges and universities have been done based on the study of predecessors. This paper choose to study changes to university teacher employment system have practical and theoretical significance. This paper further describes several core concepts involved in the study:institutions, institutional changes, institutional changes methods, path dependence, etc. And on this basis, the paper proposes research ideas, framework design and research methods used in the study.Part II is the theoretical basis which mainly analyzes the theoretical basis for transition of employment system for teachers of colleges and universities from three aspects of new institutional economics system transition theory, university governance theory, and the stakeholder theory. Firstly, the new institutional economics system transition theory is of rich meanings. Its contents relating to system and system structure, main body of system transition, system transition model, and incentive mechanism of system transition are the main contents for engaging in systemic analysis for the employment system for teachers of colleges and universities. Secondly, the university governance theory is a kind of major theory on the university governance under new times’conditions according to the features of university organization and rational characteristics, as well as meanings and main body of university governance. The transition process of employment system for teachers of colleges and universities are under continuous changes and adjustments according to the main body and structure of university governance. Thirdly, the stakeholder theory is widely used in lots of fields of social scientific research. The utilization of this theory has very close relation with stakeholders in transition of employment system for teachers of colleges and universities. It is actually the interactive game process under the push and coordination of the benefit mechanism.Part III is historical research, retrospecting and rethinking historical processes of institutional changes to university teacher employment system, finding its regularity to lay the foundation for the future institutional innovation and reform. In this paper, historical research is used on retrospecting of the institutional changes to university teacher employment system. In accordance with its institutional articulation points and chronological order for phasing division, since the founding of new China, university teacher employment system has gone through three periods in the game between the government and universities:the first is the period of university teacher appointment, the second is the period of university teaching title employment and the third is the period of university teaching post employment. Next, the historical process is reflected and several main existing problems are spotted:1. Mismatch and loss of subject of system change;2. Supply capacity of college system requires improving;3.The method of system change is singular;4.The guarantee of laws and regulations is not complete.Part Ⅳ is the study on factors of institutional changes to university teacher employment system. Institutional changes to university teacher employment system are the process to achieve a university teacher employment system with higher efficiency level to replace the original inefficient employment system. This process is the result of exogenous factors, exogenous factors and Subject factors. Exogenous factors refer to various institutional conditions that affect and restrict the changes and development of university teacher employment system and are external conditions and established factors of the generation of the changes. This paper analyzes two exogenous factors including the international environment changes and its competitive factors, the domestic political and economic changes and social transformation, and analyzes the pursuits of academic goals and efficiency goals as endogenous factors, taking the dual value orientation of academics and efficiency of the university teacher employment system changes into consideration. In the analysis of main factors, this paper analyzes the government’s control and dominance, demands and influence of interest groups and university reform and independent exploration of universities.Part V is mechanism analysis on the university teacher employment system changes. What is the mechanism? Mechanism is, to achieve a particular function, the inner workings of various elements in certain system architecture and operating rules and principles of interrelation and interaction of various elements under certain environmental conditions. In this article, the mechanical analysis is done on the transition of employment system for teachers of colleges and universities from aspects of main composing structure of system transition, incentive mechanism of system transition, and model of system transition. The main composing body of the system transition of employment system for teachers of colleges and universities mainly include:the government as the main macro body, colleges and universities as the main micro body, the market as the main adjustment body. All the main bodies above are included in order to exert their advantages, features, and functions. The internal incentive and external incentive of the systemic transition are integrated to compose the incentive mechanism for transition of employment system for teachers of colleges and universities. The coupling mechanism of the transition model is to sufficiently use the multiple transition models of system transitions and select proper models in proper times, thus to realize natural coupling of multiple models and effectively promote the systemic transition.Part VI is the foothold and the destination of the whole paper, mainly proposing path selections that would promote institutional changes to university teacher employment system on basis of the earlier chapters. According to the research based in earlier chapters, this paper suggest promoting institutional changes to our university teacher employment system from legal guarantee, government-guidance, university-dominating, market-leading and other aspects, choosing the combination of the induced changes and mandatory system changes to achieve demand and supply balance of university teacher employment system. Completing legal guarantee is the premise of university teacher employment system. To achieve running a school and employing teachers by laws and the standardization and legalization of teacher employment, the key is to establish a new relationship model among the government, the market and universities, allowing the government through the transformation of functions and management to indirectly be involved in the guidance of reform of university teacher employment system, so that duties and powers of the government would be in a reasonable range; it should play the guiding role of the market, foster academic labor market of university teachers, adopt a market strategy to guide the interests in university teacher employment, but also pay attention to avoid the risk of market competition; universities, in the national implementation process of autonomy in running schools, should have a good grasp of employment autonomy and enhance their abilities to self-exploration and innovation, becoming the main body of innovation of teacher employment system, in compliance with academic characteristics, realize the power coordination in teacher employment system and improve teacher employment system’s internal mechanism.Part Ⅶ is the conclusion which summarizes the research views again. The article has briefly sorted the core views and innovative points proposed in the research. However, there are also shortcomings. For example, the theoretic depth of the research is insufficient, and the author is not familiar with the theoretic application. There are many valuable research issues in this area, and they require further deeply research.

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