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Research on Sustainable Development of Tourism in Ethnic Village Based on the Cultural Capital Theory

Author: LiuXiaoRong
Tutor: LiJiangFeng
School: China University of Geosciences
Course: Resource industries and economic
Keywords: Cultural Capital Theory Tourism in Ethnic Village Value Evaluation Sustainable Development Xijiang Qianhu Miao Village
CLC: F592.7
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 237
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Abstract


Mankind is entering a new era of cultural economy; the competition in the future will be culture competition. Culture economy is the extension and deepening of connotation of the knowledge economy. With the development of culture consumption, culture has the great impact on modern social economic, and culture economics and economic civilization gradually become the trend of social development.In recent years, tourism is flourishing in ethnic areas. The tourism based on ethnic rural scenery, and of which main attraction is ethnic culture, is well recognized and loved by more and more tourists. Ethnic village is a place where ethnic minority groups live. With the development of tourism, the original, primitive, traditional villages become forefront of intercultural communication instantly, which will promote economic development. However, at the same time, it may cause a negative impact on local culture, environment, cultural and ecological imbalances, which include culture ecological imbalance, Stakeholder conflict, the disharmony of internal community and destruction of natural environment. The sustainable development of ethnicCultural Capital Theory, which was first proposed by The French sociologist Bourdieu, has been widely used in Pedagogy and Sociology. In recent years, western scholars increasing study on cultural economic function of cultural capital, relationship between cultural capital and personal development, cultural products and cultural industries and the impact on enterprise, area and nation of which cultural system cause. Cultural Capital Theory, because of its powerful analysis function and the complete analysis framework, and its relation to circulation, turnaround, accumulation of cultural capital, is able to provide unique analytical insight and theoretical framework for ethnic culture.At present, study on sustainable tourism of ethnic village contains less quantitative research, and there is no precedent of research on ethnic villages with the "Culture capital theory" perspective. The paper based on this understanding, conflicts of interest and the ethnic cultural tourism scenic spot has been played out mass incidents root cause is the value and tourist attractions are not clear, lead to the tourism income inequality, only realize the tourist attractions from the economic value, and through the legal safeguard ethnic village community and the villagers’ rights to property, in order to fundamentally solve the scenic area as a result of various stakeholders infinite repeated game "lose-lose" problem.Villages of ethnic tourism cannot be at the expense of environmental benefits for the economic benefits and social benefits at the expense of simple, existing ways of the development of the ethnic villages of common short-term economic interest is given priority to, in the long term, the culture of the ethnic village tourism development foundations will be hollowed, ethnic culture will lose its native soil, reconstructing culture new meaning of culture, traditional heterogeneity of the national characteristics of culture will gradually disappear, foreign various stakeholders of the nuggets will retreat after get to meet their own short-term interests, but for generations live in ethnic village villagers will face recognition of local culture, the value of the fragmented system and uncertain, so at the beginning of the ethnic villages of tourism development, it must be on the premise of ethnic villages of long-term sustainable development, give full consideration to the harmony and stability of the community in the long run.The purpose of this study is to find the profound reasons behind the unsustainable problem, which analyzing unsustainable status quo of the tourism in ethnic Village, and to explore the fundamental countermeasures for the sustainable development of the tourism in ethnic villages. For this reason, this article analyzes the realistic predicament of the national tourist villages and the limitations of existing theories at first, and then puts forward the idea to solve the national culture capitalization. Secondly, through finding suitable assessment methods of national culture, the article provides the methods and the theoretical framework for the cultural capitalization combining with the using of theory of property rights in the national tour of the village. Based on this, the article also looks for the realization of culture capitalization path of the tourism in ethnic village. In order to verify the feasibility, this article selects the typical representative of the villages of ethnic tourism scenic area called Xi jiang miao village in Guizhou city as empirical study to discuss the implementation of sustainable development path of the culture capitalization of the Xijiang miao village. The Paper is divided into three parts consisted of nine chapters to study the cultural capital of tourism in ethnic village.Chapter Ⅰ analyzes the theoretical and practical background of the research, discusses the significance of cultural capitalization, defines the main research content and structural arrangements, and analyzes the difficulties and innovation of the paper.Chapter Ⅱ carries on the theoretical review according to the keywords in the thesis, and respectively analyzes the cultural capital theory and the origin of cultural capital theory, research direction and research progress of capitalization, research status and theoretical defects of ethnic village tourism, the sustainable development of tourism research progress both at home and abroad. On this basis, the present situations of the study on three aspects have carried on the brief review. Lastly, all the above, carries on the brief introduction for the four most relevant theories which mainly used for this article, including property rights theory, value theory, stakeholder theory, theory of community participation.Chapter Ⅲ mainly discusses the necessity of research on the cultural capitalization of the tourism in ethnic village.The article first analyzes four typical development patterns for the development of current ethnic village tourism, namely government-led development model, community-led development model, the villagers-led development model and NGO-led development model, in the above four kinds of development mode, generally there are some problems. In this paper, based on the thoroughly analysis, we have found out that the development problem of ethnic village tourism unified point to two directions, one is the establishment of the interest distribution mechanism, the other one is the development ability, and this two problems, can be unified to the same framework under the perspective of cultural capital. Existing theoretical research on these two issues focused on stakeholder theory and community participation theory. Stakeholder theory provides a powerful tool for the analysis of the problems that exist within the area, and mainly puts forward the stakeholders co-governance mode and polycentric governance mode, which is not enough to solve the problem of cultural development of ethnics village. Community participation theory and community empowerment theory provide an ideal thought for the scenic spots participatory development and the internal empowerment. However, the two theories themselves are more at the theoretical level, and due to current situation that common people generally passive participation in traveling scenic area and deficiencies of the existing democratic system in our country, so they cannot fundamentally solve the issues that the villagers who participated in capacity building and benefit sharing mechanism are lack of justice. On this basis, this paper puts forward cultural capital theory which is possible to solve the problem of tourism in ethnic village. In order to prove the author’s logic, this paper establishes the sustainable development target system of tourism in ethnic village, and by analyzing the interested demands of stakeholders in the development of ethnics village tourism, associates them and concludes that only the interested demands of the villagers in ethnics village fits most with the sustainable development goals of tourism in ethnic village, therefore, protecting the interest demands of villagers is equal to the protection of sustainable development of ethnics village tourism.Chapter IV focuses on the overall value assessment of cultural resources in tourism in ethnic villages. Firstly, based on the existing classification of national culture, the culture of these ethnic villages is divided into two systems, which is material culture and non-material culture, combining with the constitution of resources in ethnic tourism villages. The material culture is divided into architectural culture, clothing culture, food culture, medicine culture, and agricultural culture. The non-material culture is divided into festival culture, dance culture, language culture, religion cultural, ecological culture, etiquette culture, and craft culture. Since the ethnic village itself is the outcome of interaction between its own culture and the local environment, the surroundings which is modified by the culture have become part of the culture. Meanwhile, when selecting destinations, tourists are often attracted by the overall cognitive of ethnic villages. This visit will be not only a travel for tourists, but also perception and experience on the whole culture village ecosystem. Therefore, this thesis takes ethnic villages culture as a cultural and ecological system, which does not distinguish between different ethnic tourism village resource elements, nor subdivide cultural subsystems. It unifies the overall value assessment of cultural resources in tourism in ethnic villages. This article thinks that this assessment will improve the awareness of all parties on the value of the culture and promote the effective allocation of tourism in ethnic villages, providing standards for the villagers on allocation of cultural benefits. It will do the accounting on cost and revenue in the development of tourism. Combining with the existing analysis on cultural values and assessment methods of tourism resources value, this paper chooses Individual Travel Cost Method(ITCM) to assess the recreational value of ethnic tourism villages, selecting Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) to assess its non-use values. Both of them constitute the sum total of economic value of culture in ethnic villages.Chapter V discusses the definition of property rights which is the foundation/basis to implement the cultural capital theory of tourism in ethnic village. Analyzing the function of tourism resources ownership, this chapter maintains that property rights can improve the support degree and satisfaction towards tourism development of villagers from the perspective of incentives for subjects and objects, it can also give the fundamental solution to community conflicts caused by unfair distribution of benefits of the ethnic villages tourist destination, reduce the tragedy of the commons and the negative externalities during the development of ethnic village tourism, achieve the efficient allocation and rational utilization of cultural resources in ethnic villages, fulfill the benign heritage of ethnic villages cultural and the protection of natural environment. There is a waste of resources and destruction of village tourism, resulting from the lack of ethnic villages existing property rights, the ill-definition of property rights, a mixture of government administration and enterprise management in property rights operation, the high transaction costs between stakeholders of the scenic spot. By analyzing, it is believed that village collective is the main ownership of ethnic village tourism resources, and the property right object include the natural and-cultural landscape value attached on existing natural objects, as well as the he existing tourism resources. Collective should enjoy the rights of possession, use, usufruct, disposition of ethnic village tourism resources. Collective should enjoy decision-making power both on development methods, development approach, capital introduction, ticket prices of ethnic village tourism, and on the establishment and benefits of products and services of food, housing, travel and entertainment in scenic spots. Meanwhile, they can transfer, change, and withdraw the ownership and management right of the scenic spot. Existing development model promoted by government violates collective rights, deprives dominant position of collective. The government should strictly observe responsibilities to support village, delegate rights back to people, and implement management functions alone. At the same time, the village collective needs to build internal oversight mechanism to protect the allocation of the villagers internal interests and to help the villagers realize the benefits produced by property rights.Chapter VI mainly discusses the specific path how to achieve cultural capital in ethnic tourism villages. First of all, it is believed that ethnic tourism village culture has value and profitability, would accumulate and produce appreciation, is potential for capital conversion, by analyzing the capital property of tourism culture in ethnic village. Based on existing division of cultural capital drawn by others scholars, combined with the actual conditions of tourism in ethnic village, this article divided national cultural capital into tangible cultural capital and incorporeal cultural capital. Tangible cultural capital can be achieved by three steps, productization of cultural resources, marketization of cultural products and market-oriented operations and management of cultural market, while incorporeal cultural capital needs to be realized by improving the embodied forms and institutionalized forms of cultural capital.Chapter VII is an empirical research into cultural capital transformation of the Xijiang Miao Village. Firstly, the article analyzes the constitution of cultural tourism resources in Xijiang Miao Village, explores its tourism development course, identifies the problems during its tourism development course using six years of observation data. Results show that there exist several problems, such as environmental damage, cultural variation, excessive commercialization and scenic spot contradictions and conflicts. In addition, by using the descriptive statistics method, the article describes and analyzes the interests demand of four core stakeholders. Based on600questionnaires of visitors in Xijiang Miao Village, the article uses ITCM methods to assess recreational value of Xijiang Miao Village, and uses CVM methods to assess non-use values of the area, result shows that the total value of its tourism economy is21.8billion yuan. According to the status analysis of existing property rights, the article holds that property right subject of tourism resources in Xijiang Miao Village should be the ethnic village collective. Moreover, the existing ownerless property, such as the natural landscape right, cultural landscape right and ethnic cultural right should be defined as the object property right of the ethnic village collective, in this way, the main decision-making rights for tourism development of the ethnic village collective can be protected, and the three property rights can be divided. At last, the article put forwards cultural capital conversion path of Xijiang Miao Village, including how to develop innovative cultural products, lift market competitiveness of cultural products, provide some trains for villagers to improve its cultural production ability and promote national regional cultural system construction.In Chapter Ⅷ, deficiencies of the research are summarized and the future research directions are discussed.

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