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Effects of Compound Fertilizer on Water-fertilizer Use and Carbon Sequestration of Winter Wheat

Author: ZhouLiFeng
Tutor: FengHao
School: Graduate School,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Course: Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Combating
Keywords: Organic and inorganic fertilizer Soil nutrient Water use efficiency NEP
CLC: S512.11
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 23
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Application of Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, herbicide and farm machinery etc eliminated a lot of obstacles to make crop yields greatly raised. But progress of, improving soil fertility and enhancing of soil structure is slow. Using the compound fertilizer is the important way to improve soil fertility, study of application amount of compound fertilizer and determining its farmland carbon emissions is meaningful. This research compounded shale, diesel, active carbon and other solid waste materials and inorganic fertilizer together and made a new kind of compound fertilizer (CF). Experiment from 2009 to 2010 was conducted to study the effects of fertilization utilization and farmland effect of carbon sequestration of soil amendment fertilizer on winter wheat. Get the main research results are as follows:1. There had no significant differences in maintaining the P and K nutrient of the soil between compound fertilizer treatments and normal fertilizer (NF) treatment; compound fertilizer treatments can improve soil organic matter content and consumed soil nitrogen. Soil organic matter and alkali-hydro nitrogen content were reduced significantly with irrigation under NF treatment, while compound fertilizer treatments were not obvious reduced, even with the increase of compound fertilizer usage, the soil organic matter levels rised. High compound fertilizer with more irrigation were advantageous to increasing soil organic matter and alkali-hydro nitrogen level, the explanation for this phenomenon needs to be further study. Irrigation had little impact on winter wheat nitrogen partial productivity (NPEP). NPEP of compound fertilizer treatments were higher than NF treatments without excessive use of compound fertilizer, NPEP decreased gradually with increased of the compound fertilizer.2. Ears per mu and grains per spike were not significant difference in different irrigation and fertilization treatments, visible in wheat mu grain number per ear Numbers and the impact is not big. But spike kernel weight and TKW were obvious in different fertilizer treatments: spike kernel weight and TKW of compound fertilizer were higher than NF treatments and raised steadily come before a slowly decrease with the increase of compound fertilizer amount. Spike kernel weight and TKW of compound fertilizer 1350 was highest,the spike kernel weight and TKW were respectively 0.26 g ,0.37 g and 0.44 g (23.13%,27.67%,35.55%)higher than NF under No irrigation. From the above results we can see: compound fertilizer mainly by means of improving spike kernel weight and TKW to improve wheat yield. Grouting process is a key factor to influence spike kernel weight and TKW, performance of spike kernel weight and TKW and and grouting process was consistent. With the longer term and higher grouting rate of wheat, the wheat yield was higher. Yields increase of compound fertilizer treatments compare with NF was 10% ~ 30%.As irrigation was improved, the optimum amount of compound fertilizer fertilization was raised correspondingly; the maximum yield was 8894.11 kg/ha under the treatment of irrigation at 60 mm in jointing stage and fertilized soil amendment fertilizer at 1350 kg/ha. Based on output-input ratio, the optimum amount of compound fertilizer fertilization under no irrigation, irrigation once, irrigation twice was respectively 656 kg/ ha、920.13 kg/ha and 872.38 kg/ha. Compound fertilizer can obviously increase PUE and WUE of winter wheat production, variation regulation of PUE, WUE and yields are basically similar. No irrigation, irrigation once, irrigation twice, the wheat yield increase was 0.616 kg, 0.56 kg, 0.46 kg higher than NF treatment. WUE was respectively 29.3%, 29.32%, 27.54% higher than NF treatments; PUE was respectively 21.81%, 18.79%, and 19.71% higher than NF treatments.3. At the beginning of jointing stage, soil water content under compound fertilizer treatments raised steadily come before a slowly increase and presented the "V" type distribution, not the "W" type distribution of NF treatments; While at the seed filling stage, the peak and nadir of soil moisture content under compound fertilizer treatments were both delayed than NF treatment. Water consume of compound fertilizer treatments are less than NF treatment. Irrigation is the most important factor to influence the water consume, with more irrigation, with more soil water consumption. Obvious differences between different fertilizer treatments under each irrigation treatments: treatments of irrigation once were the most significate difference of water consume among the fertilizer treatments. Water consume of compound fertilizer 1800 with no irrigation was 27.47 mm less than NF treatments, reducing rate was 8.45%. Average water consume of compound fertilizer treatments with irrigation twice was 19~31 mm less than NF treatments, reducing rate was 5.95% and there had less difference among compound fertilizer fertilizer treatments.4. At the tillering stage, plants under compound fertilizer treatments were low and their roots were relatively thick and short, this trend was more obvious as fertilizer application rates increased; but at the seed filling stage, plant height under treatment of middle compound fertilizer was lowest, but the spike dry matter and dry weight of above-ground-part were both heaviest, the difference of Wheat grouting rate was mainly manifested that the middle compound fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than other treatments. There was no significate difference of root-shoot ratio in all treatments. 5. Plot CO2 emission under normal fertilizer treatment was lower than soil amendment fertilizer treatments; in jointing stage and seed filling stage which soil respiration of winter wheat were intensively, irrigation at jointing stage could significantly improve soil CO2 emission flux. In consideration of crop yield and effect of farmland carbon sequestration synthetically. If put the yield under the key factor, compound fertilizer 1350 treatment was the optimal choice, while considered effect of farmland carbon sequestration more important, the best selection was compound fertilizer 1800 treatment.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Crop > Cereal crops > Wheat > Wheat > Winter wheat
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