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Intergeneric Hybridization between Brassica Rapa Pekinensis and Orychophragmus Violaceus and Cytogenetics Analysis on the Hybrids

Author: QiaoHaiYun
Tutor: SunRiFei
School: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Course: Olericulture
Keywords: Cabbage Orychophrogmus Hybridization Embryo rescue Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) Cytogenetic
CLC: S634.1
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2009
Downloads: 107
Quote: 1
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Abstract


Hybridization to some extent broke the boundaries between species, different species of human promotion and exchange of genetic introgression, is advantageous traits into the target material to obtain an effective way of new species, is the introduction of foreign genes, creating variation more methods. By means of such breeding, has a large number of excellent or specific genes from wild species or related genera, species into cultivated Brassica species. Orychophrogmus (Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) OESchulz, OO, 2n = 24) is a cruciferous Orychophrogmus species, mainly as an ornamental plant cultivation, it has many excellent agronomic traits, cold, shade, protein content high, seed oil, and has a high content of unsaturated fatty acids and low levels of erucic acid. The study is currently more focused on the use Orychophrogmus to improve in Brassica napus oil quality traits for Orychophrogmus other less studied. The laboratory studies showed that Orychophrogmus high resistance to downy mildew. Downy mildew disease is one of the three major Chinese cabbage, Chinese cabbage a serious impact on the yield of Chinese cabbage breeding problems to be solved, and cabbage germplasm resources currently available in many respects difficult to meet the needs of multi-directional breeding Therefore, in order to improve the genetic background of Chinese cabbage, Chinese cabbage new disease-resistant germplasm to obtain resources, the study was carried out cabbage dish with Zhuge intergeneric hybridization, and the creation of Chinese cabbage and O. violaceus hybrids F < sub> 1 survey conducted botanical characters, normal cytology and genomic in situ hybridization analysis, preliminary study cabbage with Orychophrogmus hybridization affinity. The main results are as follows: 1. Cabbage with Orychophrogmus conventional sexual hybridization, reciprocal cross did not get seeds, the use of artificial pollination and embryo rescue emasculation duplication technology, won a total of 31 combinations of 7 F 1 , hybrids get rate increased to 51.6%. Embryo rescue process, the different developmental stages of ovule ovule culture survival is significantly different, 10d after pollination ovule culture is the best time. Cabbage with Orychophrogmus reciprocal cross different affinities, cabbage high affinity for the female parent. In the cabbage as female orthogonal combinations, different hybrids get the probability of different hybrids, hybrids get rate and maternal genotype. (2) by morphological observation, fertility survey, Cytological Identification determine 31 F 1 hybrids in 15 violaceus with 12 chromosomes, one with 13 violaceus chromosomes, are true hybrids. Morphological observation showed that 16 hybrids F 1 botanical traits between parents, pollen sterility. Cytological Identification and GISH analysis found that 15 somatic hybrid plants have 22 chromosomes, of which 12 is violaceus chromosomes; a hybrid 403 × 565 exception, somatic cell has 23 chromosomes, of which 13 is violaceus chromosomes. 3 GISH by ordinary methods and techniques cytological findings, cabbage and O. violaceus hybrids F 1 meiotic chromosome pairing does not cause F 1 infertility. For the same type of hybrid meiosis cytokinesis, and in anaphase chromosome abnormalities observed behavior of chromosomes in hybrid pollen mother cells anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ unequal separation, there is a lagging chromosomes and multipolar separation. Meiotic chromosome pairing in metaphase Ⅰ univalent based, the average chromosome pairing configuration was 11.82 Ⅰ 4.61 Ⅱ 0.19 Ⅲ 0.08 Ⅳ. GISH analysis revealed chromosomal homeology occurs mainly in cabbage violaceus chromosomes and between chromosomes.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Gardening > Vegetable gardening > Chinese cabbage > Chinese cabbage
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