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The Urban Crisis and Its Causes in Post-war America

Author: HuangYunXia
Tutor: SunQunLang
School: Hebei Normal
Course: World History
Keywords: Urban Crisis Population decline Community decay Race riots Racial Discrimination De-industrialization The red line system The suburbanization of the industry
CLC: K712
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2009
Downloads: 139
Quote: 2
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Abstract


Post-war urban crisis in the United States is a compelling since the 1960s, and has aroused wide attention from scholars at home and abroad. This paper tries on the basis of previous studies, a more comprehensive show the performance of the post-war urban crisis, and in-depth analysis on this basis, the cause of the urban crisis. The first part overview of the development of the city from the United States to brief the process of industrialization and urbanization. 1920 United States urbanization, which then enters the stage of development of suburbanization. In World War II, the excessive suburbanization to the center of the city brought a great deal of harm caused by the urban crisis. This section describes three aspects of the performance of the urban crisis, reduction in the population of the central city, urban social unrest (race riots frequent, high crime rate), the decline of urban communities (deterioration of the living conditions of slum abound ). On the basis of the first part of the second, three, four, five parts are the cause of the urban crisis, a deep discussion. The second part is that racial discrimination and apartheid everywhere. Discrimination, there is inequality, inequality in housing, education and employment eventually led to the poverty of the black and minority ethnic, central city residents to lead to urban poverty crisis. In addition, racial discrimination triggered racial contradictions and black riots, the center of the city into the most unstable living and investment opportunities, and further deepened the decline of the central city. The third part discusses the wider context of the economic and social development, the entire economic structure adjustment accelerated the decline of the central city. After the war, the United States entered the industrial society, economy has seen the development trend of de-industrialization. The slow development of industrial, manufacturing and other traditional industries, factory closures, the scale of production has shrunk dramatically, there has been a large number of abandoned factory, the center of the city into the worst place for investment. Although the rise of the service sector provides a considerable part of the employment, but far from being able to make up for the losses caused by the decline of traditional industries, and part of the services sector at the time of the rise of tight with the suburbanization of the target to the suburbs. So that the center of the city along with the decline of economic restructuring. Part IV discusses the first generation of the system and its concept of the red line. The red line system to the central city community classified as high-risk, low ability to repay the region, the credit industry refused to give loans to loans, the central city is not difficult to develop revitalization. Secondly, after public protests against sex discrimination, the lending institutions to take a more subtle approach to the implementation of the red line system, such as: increase the down payment, discriminatory assessment, high interest rates, shorter loan period and the use of psychological The red line system and so on. Due to the presence of the red line system, the center of the city can not get the loan funds, development is limited, exacerbated by the decline of the central city. The fifth part discusses the suburbanization of the industry. Suburbanization of manufacturing, commerce and services, making the central city employment decreased, the population also will flow to the suburbs, excessive suburbanization led to the decline of the central city.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of America, > North America > United States
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