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Formation of the Ming Dynasties gas , Trend and Features

Author: ChengHaiNing
Tutor: DingWeiXiang
School: Shaanxi Normal University
Course: Chinese Philosophy
Keywords: Ming dynasty Qitics relationship between Li and Qi Cao Duan Xue Xuan Luo Qinshun Wang Tingxiang Wang Fuzhi
CLC: B248
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2009
Downloads: 156
Quote: 1
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Abstract


Since Zhu Xi’s detailed and systematic elucidation of the relationship between Li and Qi, the relationship between Li and Qi has become the key research issue which was discussed widely. About Zhu Xi’s elucidation of the relationship between Li and Qi, there is three parts:(1) In terms of the ontology, it is separated about the relationship between Li and Qi, (2) In terms of the cosmology,it is close about the relationship between Li and Qi, (3)Li Yi is separate and different. The dominance of Zhuism was established in Ming Dynasty. First of all, the thesis gave a brief introduction to the relationship between Li and Qi by Zhu Xi, whereafter lay emphasis on the relationship between Li and Qi by Cao Duan, Xue Xuan, Luo Qinshun, Wang Tingxiang, Wang Fuzhi.Cao Duan cast doubt on Zhu Xi’s metaphorical explanation of the Li and Qi by means of the relationship between man and horse,therefor he originated he discussed about the logic order of Li and Qi in Ming Dynasty. In terms of the ontology, Cao Duan’s opinion that Li, per se, can be variable and still seems to contradict with Zhu Xi’s statement that Li is invariant. Such a contradiction arise from Cao Duan’s misunderstanding on the relationship between Li and Qi and variability and stillness embodied in Taiqi in that he failed to give an ontological and cosmological reading to Zhu Xi’s ideas. The philosopher is Xue Xuan followed Cao Duan. XueXuan thought the entities in the world were generated out of the clumps of Liqi-Li coexistd with qi. XueXuan disproved ZhuXi’s statement that Li is prior to Qi. It is right partially that XueXuan offered a statement from the perspective of cosmology about the close relationship between Li and Qi. It is not right completely that he criticized ZhuXi’s statement from the perspective of ontology about the separate relationship between Li and Qi.Also XueXuan presented us a metaphor of daylight and flying bird to indicate the close relationship between Li and Qi.The statement that Li is not prior and Qi is not subsequent, is the result about the logic order of Li and Qi offered by Cao Duan and XueXuan.There is significant evolvement of denotation of Li and Qi in the middle of the Ming Dynasty complished by Luo Qinshun and Wang Tingxiang. Luo Qinshun thought that Li is the inner regularity and necessity demonstrated in the process of its application. People must understand Li from the perspective of Qi,but it is wrong that Li is equal to Qi. Luo Qinshun agreed with ChengHao’s statement of LiQiweiyi. On the basis of integration of heaven and human, he elaborated the concept of Liyifenshu in terms of the universality and diversity between human and the myriads of entities. Wang Tingxiang divided the Qi into two phases: Yuanqi and Shengqi and subsumed the Daoti, Taiqi, Taixu, under the heading of Qi. He considered the Qi as the base of the entities in the world. The only origin of the universe is Yuanqi, whose change and variation can generate all the entities in the universe, not others. Wang Tingxiang depicted the process how the Yuanqi generate all the entities and proposed the Yuanqi germ Hypothesis to explicate the fact that the Yuanqi out of the same origin can generate diverse entities in the world. Qi is the origin of the entities and Li indwell in the Qi. Phrased in another way, Qi is the base of the Li and Li is generated from Qi. Li, as the rule of variation of entity, has the charateristics of diversity whereas the diversity of the rule can be converge into Qi and regularization of the variation of Qi. Dao, as the generic rule of entity, can not exist independently and can vary with the change of Qi. In conclusion, Luo Qinshun and Wang Tingxiang offered a statement from the perspective of cosmology about the close relationship between Li and Qi.WangFuzhi summarized the relationship between Li and Qi in Ming Dynasty . WangFuzhi thought that Qi is the only matter existing in the universe. Qi is the ontology of the universe and the origin of the all the matter. Qi is the origin of the universe and that of everything on earth. Qi is the material and essence of the all the matter.The generation of the all the matter is aggregated by Qi. The all the matter is the manifestation of Qi and Qi is the content of the all the matter. Wang Fuzhi proposed a renewed explanation of Li which was defined by means of regularity and moral principles. Li was considered as the rule to govern the change of Qi and everything on earth. Li was embodied in the objective world. WangFuzhi thought that Li is the Systematic and attribute of Qi and Li is determined by Qi. WangFuzhi narrated the close relation between Li and Qi- Li is governed by Qi as a conclusion.

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CLC: > Philosophy, religion > Chinese Philosophy > Philosophy of the Ming Dynasty (1368 ~ 1644 )
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