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Research on Human Sacrifice of Chu State

Author: YangMao
Tutor: ZouZuoDu
School: Southwestern University
Course: Archaeology and Museology
Keywords: Chu People martyrdom Figurines funeral Social style
CLC: K878.8
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2010
Downloads: 218
Quote: 1
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Abstract


Chu martyrdom from when articulation historical records, difficult to trace. However, Chu class differentiation process and strong history can see the clues. Chu Wu Xiong Tong officially king, kingship from the general public, government institutions, the main slave birthright has been set, the martyrdom conditions are quite mature. Be seen, the early Spring and Autumn, Chu should have people martyrdom, unfortunately, is missing in the literature records, empirical archaeological data nor found. Archaeological excavations demonstrated: Spring and Autumn Period, mainly people martyrdom Advanced Tombs of the Nobles, reached its zenith in the late Spring and Autumn and early Warring States period began to decline, further recession of the Warring States Period. Chu according to the identity of the martyrdom, martyrdom is mainly divided into three categories, wives sacrificial victims, cronies there does not exist pet sacrificial victims and slaves sacrificial victims. Compared with the state of Qin, Chu martyrdom short time, mainly concentrated in the Central Plains culture the Henan and political center of impact Hubei. From the disposal of human sacrifice, Chu martyrdom is less cruel than the state of Qin, and the complexity of human sacrifice location is not. Chu martyrdom wives, cronies favorite pet and Household Slaves than a single identity. A higher proportion of female martyrdom in the state of Chu martyrdom. Overall, Chu martyrdom instance is less than that of the state of Qin. It is noteworthy that Chu is not the same level of the same period of the Tombs of the Nobles in the presence of human martyrdom, for many reasons. In addition, such a class of people, it is some kind of spiritual beliefs voluntarily from the dead, and martyrdom are essentially different, regarded as \Cai Guo and Tsang Kwok subsidiary of the country for an extended period of Chu Chu culture influence. Shou County Cai Hou Tomb, the tomb and Leigudun II tomb Chu Department of tombs, however, by the degree of influence of the Chu funeral culture there is a large difference. Almost no Shou County, the tomb of Cai Hou Chu burial cultural factors, and the martyrdom of the tomb martyrdom and Chu tombs of the same class have more similarities when it is subjected to the impact of the Chu culture . Marquis Yi of sacrificial victims to 21 people, the sacrificial victims Shou County, the tomb of Cai Hou 1, both national strength, political relations with Chu Zeng, Chu Cai related. Piece figurines figurines prototype of martyrdom, either from the facial features, clothing, decoration, shape ratio, or sculpture, painting techniques from the point of view seems quaint and clumsy. Evolution of figurines buried abuse originated in the late Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period rapid development of the late Warring States period reached its peak. From the geographical distribution, first appeared in Hubei Dangyang, then gradually break through the geographical constraints, but overall Chu near the political center of the region and its rear area of ??Hunan. Figurines buried principle, early Warring States general funerary wooden figurines 2 - 4; Warring States Period, doctor funerary 8 - 30, Staff Sergeant 6 - 12, 2 - 4 sergeant and corporal; late Warring States period figurines buried extended to civilian tomb, the principles presented a state of chaos. Figurines funeral as Chu funerals in a specific material and cultural phenomenon, is a product of the Spring and Autumn period of social change, the collapse of slavery to the feudal system the result of excessive the Chu Tomb human martyrdom, figurines buried or human martyrdom and burial figurines The co-existence of the phenomenon is the concentrated reflection of social change. Chu Funeral martyrdom and figurines buried affect each other, on the one hand, figurines buried as a disguised form martyrdom, martyrdom there is no growth of figurines buried soil; On the other hand, to accelerate the development of figurines buried people martyrdom fading. At present, the state of Qin martyrdom in 52 cases (not including Qin Gong, the King of Qin tomb), Chu martyrdom in 27 cases (does not include discipline of Alexander Xue Zhangjiawa, Otsuka and Xiong mound), accounting for more than half of the state of Qin. Chu late into the national civilization and, from the early Spring and Autumn to early Warring States Chu Dao Wang of the world has been in a stage of the feudal lord system. The period of martyrdom, martyrdom the identity of the wives, cronies favorite pet and house slaves, and the sacrificial victims production of slaves rarely, or can be used as evidence Chu is not a slave society. Late Warring States Chu transition to the stage of the feudal landlord system, the social class structure has undergone tremendous changes in, Echeng hundred children farm M3, M4, M5 tomb or due to the change in status for this increase. No mature slavery is the root cause of the Chu martyrdom less. Spring and Autumn Period Ceremony Disintegration of the situation, people martyrdom to break the original level of restrictions, the number of human sacrifice, a combination of funerary objects and ritual are overstepped. The Warring States era of social change accelerated, traditional ritual system was completely destroyed. The lower nobility martyrdom Increase martyrdom down. From the disposal of human sacrifice, human sacrifice burial and funerary objects, the identity of human sacrifice and the right to choose from the dead, the state of Chu martyrdom phase of human nature, its strong thought of the people. Chu enlightened monarch and people of insight in the war and social development come to realize the power of the people, and from the lessons of the past, sum up experience, to further promote the development of the thought of the people, which is less Chu martyrdom an important reason. Chu due to their own cultural background and geographical factors, funeral culture reflected Chu Custom ranging between foreign barbarians. Its hand to follow Zhou, Funeral system of kinship ties, proper generation of the system is characterized by the upper nobility cemetery there are also funerary customs and martyrdom customs, and the some Chu barbarians nobility accepted the Central Plains culture funerary customs. On the other hand, Chu the barbarians senior nobility to keep the family burial custom refused to martyrdom or buried. Chu moved to Jianghan lasted only for a long time, the comb quite wind, Mu Yue rain, subtle, and its spiritual and cultural more than the Central Plains with original ingredients, natural flavor, mysterious means, and romantic, and gradually formed a genre in the South. Among them, figurines buried Chu most romantic and creative product.

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CLC: > History, geography > Cultural Relics and Archaeology > China 's Cultural Relics and Archaeology > Ruins > Tombs, burial
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