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Approach to the Optimization Model of Grazing System on the Songnen Plains of China

Author: GongHaiJing
Tutor: WangDeLi
School: Northeast Normal University
Course: Ecology
Keywords: Optimization Model Grassland grazing system Stocking rate Persistent development
CLC: S812
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2006
Downloads: 79
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Abstract


Ecology is such a science, which focuses on the relationship between organisms andtheir environment. The basic issues of the ecology research are the interaction among theorganisms, and interactions between organisms and their environment. In general, thisecological process is always presented by the brief and strict mathematic models.The grassland grazing system is a very complex system. It could be divided intothree subsystems as plant production subsystem, animal production subsystem andmanagement subsystem. The ligament of the two subsystems (pant production subsystemand animal production subsystem), the key of the grassland grazing system, is the grazingbehavior on the interphase between the animal and the plant. The grazing behavior of thelivestock affects not only the regeneration of the grassland but also the capability of thelivestock production. The purpose of the grassland grazing system is not only to producemore useful livestock production, but also maintain the refresh capacity of the grassland.This process includes a bunch of issues, such as to correspond the production and theutilization. At this time, there are lots of problems in the grazing system, and so muchplain has been disturbed. To make the suitable grazing strategies such as establishing theproper grazing rate, which can make the maximum system export and obtain thecontinuing improvement, are the main optimization questions of the grassland grazingsystem. The main purpose of this research is to establish an optimization model for thegrassland grazing system of the Songnen Plains in China by mathematic methods, and tooffer scientific suggestion for managers who want to keep their grassland healthy andsteady-going. Firstly, in this paper, we confirm some aspects that affect the plant growthrates: the growth rate of the plant without any disturber, the decrease of the plant biomassaffected by the livestock grazing, and the compensatory growth of the plant under thegrazing behavior. Secondly, basing on the experiment we put forward 1) The over groundbiomass changes model of grazing system in the Songnen Plains;2) The forecastingmodel of the livestock production. Lastly, basing on the results of the models, we providesome appropriate suggestions for the grassland grazing system.The results of over ground biomass changes model of grazing system in the SongnenPlains were summarized as following: The over ground biomass was affected by theregeneration capacity of the grass, the capacity of the livestock grazing, and thecompensatory growth capacity of the over ground plant opposite the grazing behavior.According to these factors, we build: ① The forecasting model of the regenerationbiomass. The model illuminated that the regeneration biomass goes with the increasingbiomass per unit area;however, it will turn to decrease if the biomass per unit area ismuch enough. ② The forecasting model of the prey velocity. The model shows that theprey velocity is related with the over ground biomass which can be obtained by one sheep(OBS) in a limited hour. The prey velocity will increase with the increscent OBS. But itwill lessen if the OBS is overrun. ③ The model of the compensatory growth capacity ofthe vegetable. This model can be used to simulate the balance between the forecastingregrowth biomass and the real regrowth biomass. Basing on these three models, weestablished the over ground biomass model, and according to the different over groundbiomass of each month, we gain the prey velocity, which can make sure to achieve themaximum regrowth rapidity. The results indicate that the appropriate stocking rate is 1.2sheep per hectare in May, and it will be 4 sheep per hectare in June, 6.4 sheep per hectarein July, when it is August, it will become 10.6 sheep per hectare. However, it will decreaseto 10 sheep per hectare in September. In a general way, it is approximately 6.4 sheep perhectare during the whole grazing seasons.The problem of the forecasting model of the livestock production was simple, theresults indicated: the intake mass augments when the stocking rate is increased, howeverthe augment speed will be decreased.This research figures that the grassland grazing system of the Songnen Plains is adynamic system, and a dynamic model is true of fact. At the same time, whenadministering grassland grazing system, the managers should consider both the livestockproductions and the capacity that the grassland can bear, to make sure the grassland coulddevelop healthily and continually.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Livestock, animal medicine,hunting,silkworm,bee > General Animal Science > Grassland Science,prairie school
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