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Androgyne, Rebirth, Mandala

Author: WangZuo
Tutor: WengDeXiu
School: Liaoning Normal University
Course: English Language and Literature
Keywords: James Joyce Ulysses Androgyne Rebirth Mandala
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2006
Downloads: 268
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James Joyce, one of the greatest practitioners in the history of literature, devoted himself to his art throughout his life and did all he could to expose for us the inner world of human beings. His Ulysses took the course of English literature in a complete new direction. Meanwhile, it aroused tremendous uproar in society. One of the reasons is that Joyce’s Ulysses has the same title as the great Homeric epic, The Odyssey and a similar structure. Therefore, many critics thought that one of the themes of Joyce’s Ulysses was looking for a father. However, this thesis sets out to demonstrate that this theme would be better interpreted as Bloom’s search for harmony. This thesis attempts to analyze this theme with C. G Jung’s theories of collective unconscious archetypes and some oriental ideas of harmony, especially the ideas of harmony in Taoism.In the first chapter, what a chaotic modern world Joyce lived in is illustrated and thus what inspired Joyce to depict such a chaotic modern world in his Ulysses can be made clear. In this chapter, archetypal theories, the ideas of harmony in Taoism, and the relationship between C. G Jung’s collective unconscious archetypes and the Taoist ideas of harmony are also introduced.In the second chapter, based on the theories of the androgyne archetype, this thesis attempts to show that it is the separation of androgynous halves that causes the chaos in Ulysses. The androgynous halves, Bloom and Molly, become separated and very depressed, because they are lacking in communing and understanding. Under the shadow of his parents’ separated androgynous halves, Stephen also becomes the victim of his parents and has to bear the frustration. Other Dubliners have to endure the agony caused by their lack of androgynous halves, too.According to Taoism, anything that goes to a certain extreme is sure to head for its opposite. Hence, the chaos and crises in Ulysses indicate the future process of harmony. The third chapter analyses the reuniting of Bloom and Molly, the two androgynous halves. Haunted by the pain of the death of their only son, Rudy, both Bloom and Molly regard a son as very important. Bloom’s acquaintance with Stephen helps both Bloom and Molly cope with the frustration of having no son. Therefore, Stephen becomes the hope of Bloom and Molly. According to Jung’s rebirth archetype, after the rebirth ceremony, Stephen is completely renewed. Thus, this kind of hope becomes more powerful. Stephen not only makes Bloom rethink what he is lacking in and the relationship between him and Molly, but also makes

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