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The Major Behavioral Aspects, Supercooling Capability and Risk Assessment of Solenopsis Invicta (hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mainland China

Author: ChenHaoTao
Tutor: LuoLiZhi
School: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Course: Agricultural Entomology and Pest Control
Keywords: Red imported fire ants Community-based Colony structure Nest activities Worker ants invasive Supercooling point Potential distribution Risk Analysis
CLC: S433
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2010
Downloads: 218
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in mainland China was found in 2004 and 2005 confirmed invasive pest. The red imported fire ants have occurred in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces in China as well as Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao in some areas. As the red imported fire ant threat to human health and life, destruction of biodiversity, damage to public facilities, endangering agricultural and livestock production, and to the invasion to bring about significant economic losses. Therefore is to invade the country or region expressly to eliminate or limit the spread of the object, but also the non-occurrence of (invasive) number one quarantine objects. Do not know much of the red imported fire ant occurrence rules, monitoring, quarantine and control effect is not very satisfactory. To research and clarify the red imported fire ants in China occurrence rules, to improve and enhance the monitoring of the red imported fire ant quarantine and control techniques provide a scientific basis, and contribute to control the spread of fire ants and hazards In this paper, a careful analysis of domestic and foreign on the basis of research results, for the urgent need to address the key issues of red imported fire ants monitoring practice, social type of red fire ants, the nest ant colony structure, the seasonal pattern of activity outside the nest, hardiness and geographical distribution forecast and risk assessment carried out a systematic study, made some meaningful results for: social type of application behavior and ecology of the red imported fire ant, ant worker ants, larvae and pupae structure dynamics of the relationship of the number of worker ants in the nest size and nest conducted a systematic study to obtain some new results: the application worker ants attack binding the nest ants after the number of test methods on Lu Chuan, Guangzhou, Zhuhai and Shenzhen red imported fire ant social type The study results show that China's red imported fire ants Multi-queen. The 79 nest determination, after more than formicary account 73 to as high as 92.4%. Lu Chuan, Zhuhai and Shenzhen all queen ant colony, Guangzhou 30 nest groups after six single ant colony. These results not only reaffirmed China's red imported fire ant is the main conclusion, but also provides a simple and feasible method of operation for the red imported fire ant social-discrimination; every two months from September to July of the following year The investigation results show that the red fire ant mounds volume gradually increases from the beginning of the investigation, began to smaller increases to a maximum value after January to May, and then gradually increase the minimum is reached. So that the the anthill volume change in the years of this study was the \varies, and corresponds to the size of the anthill. The total amount of ants in the nest in the second half of the year continued to increase, gradually reduced to reached a maximum in January to July. Between the different seasons significant difference between the number of individuals in the nest; the total amount of worker ants in the anthill and the diameter of the bottom of the anthill significant correlation (R = 0.78, P lt; 0.05), with y = 1.335x2.894 (r2 = 0.765, P lt; 0.05) to describe the relationship between the two; larvae, pupae, winged ants share of ant colony individual total than there are significant differences in the different seasons, but their number of worker ants than the number showing the opposite trend. These results not only clarify the system of red imported fire ants harm the population and structural dynamics of, and provides an important experimental basis to improve and enhance the monitoring of the red imported fire ant technical level. Application of behavioral ecology of the red imported fire ant worker ants season and nest during the day outside activities, as well as the nuptial flight of winged ants law research results show that: the strength of the worker ants in the nest outside there are significant differences with the different seasons or months . On the worker ants seasonal activity rhythm to June and October, the activity intensity, the weakest activity in January and February, the intensity of the activities of the worker ants in the rest of the month living in between these two time periods. Workers nest outside activities of daily rhythm with the seasons different: 1 to 2 months, worker ants are less active at high temperatures sunny possible activities around noon; 3 to 4 months, the worker ants noon activities height, showed a single peak type; July to October, noon activities weakened, a bimodal distribution; 5 to 6 months and 11 to 12 months, was not obvious bimodal. These results indicate that the worker ants nest outside activities influenced by temperature. In addition, rainfall is conducive to the worker ants nest outside activities to inhibit worker ants nest outside activities, but rainfall moment. In the experimental observation area nuptial flight of winged ants phenomenon can be seen throughout the year, but the nuptial flight mainly concentrated in the March to May, the nuptial flight activity occurred before rain or rain. The results obtained for the first time to carry out the monitoring activities of the red imported fire ant and the development of effective monitoring technology provides an important scientific basis. Application of low, medium and high three interference intensity for different sizes of ant colony behavioral responses were observed interference worker ants results show that: the maximum number of worker ants out of the nest ant colony infested with the infestation intensity increases. Small nest on the low intrusive strength reaction time (0.80 ± 0.03s) was significantly longer than that but the large and medium-sized nest all intrusive strength of (0.40 ± 0.04s), the high intensity of infestation reaction time (0.51 ± 0.02s); able to respond quickly; intrusion greater the intensity, the greater the nest, the more the amount of worker ants out of the nest, this process can be different compartment model description; 1.5m and 0.5m two intrusive strength under any count time There was no significant difference in percentage of the worker ants; equal-area regions of the same orientation worker ants in the anthill ants amount is reduced by increasing the distance, the number of worker ants in the area of ??regional center equidistant different orientation. These results provide further understanding of the red imported fire ant attacks and how to protect the body from the red imported fire ant attack provides an important experimental basis. Applied Entomology principle of cold hardiness and resistance to cold method for the determination of the different levels of red imported fire ants in the ant colony instars geographic populations of the season, as well as different levels of hunger worker ants supercooling point. The obtained results show that: the different levels in the colony and instars supercooling point difference is significant. The worker adult supercooling point (-11.8 ° C) was significantly lower than female winged ants (-8.1 ° C) and ants (-7.9 ° C), worker pupae and larvae supercooling point of -13.6 ° C and -12.1 ° C queen pupae and larvae were -13.3 ° C and -12.2 ° C, respectively. Supercooling point of the worker pupae were significantly lower than adults and larvae. Queen pupae and larvae were no significant differences, but significant differences with the adult. The same immature no significant differences between the different levels; worker ants supercooling point there is a clear seasonal variations in spring (-4.3 ± 0.1 ° C), summer (-6.6 ± 0.2 ° C), autumn (-9.4 ± 0.1 ° C), winter (-12.0 ± 0.2 ° C) in order of decreasing; Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Guangzhou and Lu Chuan four geographic populations of worker ants supercooling point is obvious in the spring, autumn and winter was no significant difference, hunger worker ants can supercooling point increased, but the greater magnitude of large worker ants smaller worker ants elevated hunger after 15 d worker increased by 7.0 ° C than the hunger before the supercooling point, the little worker ants only increased by 4.9 ° C. These results obtained, in order to further clarify the development of cold tolerance of red imported fire ants, its determination of the distribution of the northern boundary of further experimental evidence. As a decisive factor in the effective accumulated temperature above the developmental threshold temperature, the average annual rainfall and January isotherms -2 ° C as a limiting factor, application of GIS with Kriging spatial interpolation of the red imported fire ant potential distribution forecast The results showed that the red imported fire ants the adaptability distribution in our country can be divided into highly suitable area, appropriate Health District, mild areas suitable and non-suitable area for four types. Hainan, Taiwan's most southern islands of the South China Sea, most of Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macau, most of Guangxi, Yunnan Yuxi City, the local Southern Fujian angle and most of the southwest corner, Jiangxi and Hubei red fire ants highly suitable area. These areas accounted for about 7.4% of the area; long and narrow area of ??the southwest border in Yunnan Yuxi extremely surrounding local areas and Chuxiong and Panzhihua, Sichuan junction, northern and western Guangdong, a small area of ??northern Guangxi, Henan and Hubei and Anhui at the junction of the local small area, the southwest corner of Anhui, Zhejiang and southern endangered parts of Shanghai, Shanghai, Jiangsu, near Shanghai, a very small area, most of Chongqing, Sichuan near Chongqing small part of regional and Panzhihua and Yunnan Chuxiong junction small area, most of Hunan , Guizhou Tongren near Hunan part of the region, most of Fujian, Taiwan in addition to the southern tip of the majority, the red imported fire ant suitable area, the region is dominated by the central, eastern and southwestern parts of, accounting for 8.4% of the land area; Mild suitable area is mainly distributed in Central Guizhou East, most of Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu, Gansu junction of the surrounding area, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu near the junction region, Daiyunshan surrounding high altitude areas, accounting for 6.0% of the land area . China's northwest, northeast and north, and most of the southwest, central, eastern parts of Hunan Xuefengshan surrounding Hengshan the southwestern Hunan Guidong, RUCHENG Mountain, red fire ants suitable area, accounting for land area 78.2%. All kinds of red fire ants suitable area related to mainland China in 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, as well as Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and other places, accounting for 21.8% of the land area. \The results showed that the red imported fire ant integrated risk value of 2.23, alien invasive species are high-risk, high distribution and risk of harm in our country, must take strict inspection measures to prevent the introduction and diffusion of the insect. These results provide a scientific basis for the government fight the red imported fire ant quarantine measures.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Plant Protection > Pest and Disease Control > Plant pest and its control
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